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Found 8 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 8


Direct Observation of Subrelativistic Electron Precipitation Potentially Driven by EMIC Waves

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are known to typically cause electron losses into Earth\textquoterights upper atmosphere at >~1 MeV, while the minimum energy of electrons subject to efficient EMIC-driven precipitation loss is unresolved. This letter reports electron precipitation from subrelativistic energies of ~250 keV up to ~1 MeV observed by the Focused Investigations of Relativistic Electron Burst Intensity, Range and Dynamics (FIREBIRD-II) CubeSats, while two Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) observed proton precipitation nearby. Van Allen Probe A detected EMIC waves (~0.7\textendash2.0 nT) over the similar L shell extent of electron precipitation observed by FIREBIRD-II, albeit with a ~1.6 magnetic local time (MLT) difference. Although plasmaspheric hiss and magnetosonic waves were also observed, quasi-linear calculations indicate that EMIC waves were the most efficient in driving the electron precipitation. Quasi-linear theory predicts efficient precipitation at >0.8\textendash1 MeV (due to H-band EMIC waves), suggesting that other mechanisms are required to explain the observed subrelativistic electron precipitation.

Capannolo, L.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Chen, L.; Shen, X.-C.; Spence, H.; Sample, J.; Johnson, A.; Shumko, M.; Klumpar, D.; Redmon, R.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 11/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL084202

electron precipitation; EMIC waves; FIREBIRD-II; quasi linear theory; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes; wave particle interactions


Observations and Fokker-Planck simulations of the L-shell, energy, and pitch-angle structure of Earth\textquoterights electron radiation belts during quiet times

The evolution of the radiation belts in L-shell (L), energy (E), and equatorial pitch-angle (α0) is analyzed during the calm 11-day interval (March 4 \textendashMarch 15) following the March 1 storm 2013. Magnetic Electron and Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) observations from Van Allen Probes are interpreted alongside 1D and 3D Fokker-Planck simulations combined with consistent event-driven scattering modeling from whistler mode hiss waves. Three (L, E, α0)-regions persist through 11 days of hiss wave scattering; the pitch-angle dependent inner belt core (L~<2.2 and E<700 keV), pitch-angle homogeneous outer belt low-energy core (L>~5 and E~<100 keV), and a distinct pocket of electrons (L~[4.5, 5.5] and E~[0.7, 2] MeV). The pitch-angle homogeneous outer belt is explained by the diffusion coefficients that are roughly constant for α0~<60\textdegree, E>100 keV, 3.5

Ripoll, -F.; Loridan, V.; Denton, M.; Cunningham, G.; Reeves, G.; ik, O.; Fennell, J.; Turner, D.; Drozdov, A; Villa, J.; Shprits, Y; Thaller, S.; Kurth, W.; Kletzing, C.; Henderson, M.; Ukhorskiy, A;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026111

electron lifetime; hiss waves; pitch-angle diffusion coefficient; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes; wave particle interactions

Understanding the Driver of Energetic Electron Precipitation Using Coordinated Multisatellite Measurements

Magnetospheric plasma waves play a significant role in ring current and radiation belt dynamics, leading to pitch angle scattering loss and/or stochastic acceleration of the particles. During a non-storm time dropout event on 24 September 2013, intense electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves were detected by Van Allen Probe A (Radiation Belt Storm Probes-A). We quantitatively analyze a conjunction event when Van Allen Probe A was located approximately along the same magnetic field line as MetOp-01, which detected simultaneous precipitation of >30 keV protons and energetic electrons over an unexpectedly broad energy range (>~30 keV). Multipoint observations together with quasi-linear theory provide direct evidence that the observed electron precipitation at higher energy (>~700 keV) is primarily driven by EMIC waves. However, the newly observed feature of the simultaneous electron precipitation extending down to ~30 keV is not supported by existing theories and raises an interesting question on whether EMIC waves can scatter such low-energy electrons.

Capannolo, L.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Zhang, X.-J.; Redmon, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Engebretson, M.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 07/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL078604

EMIC waves; energetic particle precipitation; pitch angle scattering; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes; wave particle interactions


Spectra of keV protons related to ion-cyclotron wave packets

We use the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation to study the statistical aspects of stochastic dynamics of the radiation belt (RB) protons driven by nonlinear electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC) wave packets. We obtain the spectra of keV protons scattered by these waves that show steeping near the gyroresonance, the signature of resonant wave-particle interaction that cannot be described by a simple power law. The most likely mechanism for proton precipitation events in RBs is shown to be nonlinear wave-particle interaction, namely, the scattering of RB protons into the loss cone by EMIC waves.

Khazanov, K.; Sibeck, D.; Tel\textquoterightnikhin, A.; Kronberg, T.;

Published by: Physics of Plasmas      Published on: 01/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI:

Diffusion; Particle precipitation; protons; Van Allen Probes; wave particle interactions; Wave power


Van Allen Probes Observations of Prompt MeV Radiation Belt Electron Acceleration in Non-Linear Interactions with VLF Chorus

Prompt recovery of MeV electron populations in the post-storm core of the outer terrestrial radiation belt involves local acceleration of a seed population of energetic electrons in interactions with VLF chorus waves. Electron interactions during the generation of VLF rising tones are strongly non-linear, such that a fraction of the relativistic electrons at resonant energies are trapped by waves, leading to significant non-adiabatic energy exchange. Through detailed examination of VLF chorus and electron fluxes observed by Van Allen Probes, we investigate the efficiency of non-linear processes for acceleration of electrons to MeV energies. We find through subpacket analysis of chorus waveforms that electrons with initial energy 100s keV - 3 MeV can be accelerated by 50 keV - 200 keV in resonant interactions with a single VLF rising tone on a time scale of 10-100 msec.

Foster, J.; Erickson, P.; Omura, Y.; Baker, D.; Kletzing, C.; Claudepierre, S.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023429

nonlinear acceleration; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes; VLF chorus; wave particle interactions

Reproducing the observed energy-dependent structure of Earth s electron radiation belts during storm recovery with an event-specific diffusion model

We present dynamic simulations of energy-dependent losses in the radiation belt " slot region" and the formation of the two-belt structure for the quiet days after the March 1st storm. The simulations combine radial diffusion with a realistic scattering model, based data-driven spatially and temporally-resolved whistler mode hiss wave observations from the Van Allen Probes satellites. The simulations reproduce Van Allen Probes observations for all energies and L-shells (2 to 6) including (a) the strong energy-dependence to the radiation belt dynamics (b) an energy-dependent outer boundary to the inner zone that extends to higher L-shells at lower energies and (c) an " S-shaped" energy-dependent inner boundary to the outer zone that results from the competition between diffusive radial transport and losses. We find that the characteristic energy-dependent structure of the radiation belts and slot region is dynamic and can be formed gradually in ~15 days, although the " S-shape" can also be reproduced by assuming equilibrium conditions. The highest energy electrons (E > 300 keV) of the inner region of the outer belt (L ~ 4-5) also constantly decay, demonstrating that hiss wave scattering affects the outer belt during times of extended plasmasphere. Through these simulations, we explain the full structure in energy and L-shell of the belts and the slot formation by hiss scattering during storm recovery. We show the power and complexity of looking dynamically at the effects over all energies and L-shells and the need for using data-driven and event-specific conditions.

Ripoll, J.; Reeves, G.; Cunningham, G.; Loridan, V.; Denton, M.; ik, O.; Kurth, W.; Kletzing, C.; Turner, D.; Henderson, M.; Ukhorskiy, A;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 05/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL068869

electron lifetimes; electron losses; hiss waves; Radiation belts; Slot region; Van Allen Probes; wave particle interactions

Forecasting and remote sensing outer belt relativistic electrons from low Earth orbit

This study demonstrates the feasibility and reliability of using observations from low Earth orbit (LEO) to forecast and nowcast relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt. We first report a high cross-energy, cross-pitch-angle coherence discovered between the trapped MeV electrons and precipitating approximately hundreds (~100s) of keV electrons\textemdashobserved by satellites with very different altitudes\textemdashwith correlation coefficients as high as ≳ 0.85. Based upon the coherence, we then tested the feasibility of applying linear prediction filters to LEO data to predict the arrival of new MeV electrons during geomagnetic storms, as well as their evolving distributions afterward. Reliability of these predictive filters is quantified by the performance efficiency with values as high as 0.74 when driven merely by LEO observations (or up to 0.94 with the inclusion of in situ MeV electron measurements). Finally, a hypothesis based upon the wave-particle resonance theory is proposed to explain the coherence, and a first-principle electron tracing model yields supporting evidence.

Chen, Yue; Reeves, Geoffrey; Cunningham, Gregory; Redmon, Robert; Henderson, Michael;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL067481

forecast and nowcast; hundreds of keV precipitating electrons; LEO observations; Radiation belts; relativistic electrons; wave particle interactions


A ULF wave driver of ring current energization

ULF wave radial diffusion plays an important role in the transport of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt, yet similar ring current transport is seldom considered even though ions satisfy a nearly identical drift resonance condition albeit without the relativistic correction. By examining the correlation between ULF wave power and the response of the ring current, characterized by Dst, we demonstrate a definite correlation between ULF wave power and Dst. Significantly, the lagged correlation peaks such that ULF waves precede the response of the ring current and Dst. We suggest that this correlation is the result of enhanced radial transport and energization of ring current ions through drift resonance and ULF wave radial diffusion of ring current ions. An analysis and comparison of the ion and electron diffusion coefficients further support this conclusion, ULF waves providing an important missing physical transport process explaining Dst underestimation in ring current models.

Murphy, Kyle; Mann, Ian; Ozeke, Louis;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 10/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/grl.v41.1910.1002/2014GL061253

Dst; radial diffusion; ring current dynamics; ULF waves; wave particle interactions