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Found 16 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 16


Can Earth’s magnetotail plasma sheet produce a source of relativistic electrons for the radiation belts?

Abstract Simultaneous observations from Van Allen Probes (RBSP) in Earth’s outer radiation belt (∼4-6 RE) and Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) in the magnetotail plasma sheet at >20 RE geocentric distance are used to compare relative levels of relativistic electron phase space density (PSD) for constant values of the first adiabatic invariant, M. We present new evidence from two events showing: i) at times, there is sufficient PSD in the central plasma sheet to provide a source of >1 MeV electrons into the outer belt; ii) the most intense levels of relativistic electrons are not accelerated in the solar wind or transported from the inner magnetosphere and thus must be accelerated rapidly (within ∼minutes or less) and efficiently across a broad region of the magnetotail itself; and iii) the highest intensity relativistic electrons observed by MMS were confined within only the central plasma sheet. The answer to the title question here is: yes, it can, however whether Earth’s plasma sheet actually does provide a source of several 100s keV to >1 MeV electrons to the outer belt and how often it does so remain important outstanding questions.

Turner, Drew; Cohen, Ian; Michael, Adam; Sorathia, Kareem; Merkin, Slava; Mauk, Barry; Ukhorskiy, Sasha; Murphy, Kyle; Gabrielse, Christine; Boyd, Alexander; Fennell, Joseph; Blake, Bernard; Claudepierre, Seth; Drozdov, Alexander; Jaynes, Allison; Ripoll, Jean-Francois; Reeves, Geoffrey;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 09/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Radiation belts; plasma sheet; Particle acceleration; relativistic electrons; inner magnetosphere; magnetotail; Van Allen Probes

The Roles of the Magnetopause and Plasmapause in Storm-Time ULF Wave Power Enhancements

Abstract Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves play a crucial role in transporting and coupling energy within the magnetosphere. During geomagnetic storms, dayside magnetospheric ULF wave power is highly variable with strong enhancements that are dominated by elevated solar wind driving. However, the radial distribution of ULF wave power is complex - controlled interdependently by external solar wind driving and the internal magnetospheric structuring. We conducted a statistical analysis of observed storm-time ULF wave power from the Van Allen Probes spacecraft within 2012 - 2016. Focusing on the dayside (06 < Magnetic Local Time ≤ 15), we observe large enhancements across 3 < L < 6 and a steep L dependence during the main phase. We consider how accounting for concurrent magnetopause and plasmapause locations may reduce statistical variability and improve parameterisation of spatial trends over and above using the L value. Ordering storm time ULF wave power by L provides the weakest dependences from those considered, whereas ordering by distance from the magnetopause is more effective. We also explore dependences on local plasma density and find that spatially localised ULF wave power enhancements are confined within high density patches in the afternoon sector (likely plasmaspheric plumes). The results have critical implications for empirical models of ULF wave power and radial diffusion coefficients. We highlight the necessity of improved characterisation of the highly distorted storm-time cold plasma density distribution, in order to more accurately predict ULF wave power.

Sandhu, J.; Rae, I.; Staples, F.; Hartley, D.; Walach, M.-T.; Elsden, T.; Murphy, K.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

ULF waves; Geomagnetic storms; Van Allen Probes; radial diffusion; inner magnetosphere; plasmasphere


Substorm-Ring Current Coupling: A Comparison of Isolated and Compound Substorms

Substorms are a highly variable process, which can occur as an isolated event or as part of a sequence of multiple substorms (compound substorms). In this study we identify how the low-energy population of the ring current and subsequent energization varies for isolated substorms compared to the first substorm of a compound event. Using observations of H+ and O+ ions (1 eV to 50 keV) from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron instrument onboard Van Allen Probe A, we determine the energy content of the ring current in L-MLT space. We observe that the ring current energy content is significantly enhanced during compound substorms as compared to isolated substorms by \~20\textendash30\%. Furthermore, we observe a significantly larger magnitude of energization (by \~40\textendash50\%) following the onset of compound substorms relative to isolated substorms. Analysis suggests that the differences predominantly arise due to a sustained enhancement in dayside driving associated with compound substorms compared to isolated substorms. The strong solar wind driving prior to onset results in important differences in the time history of the magnetosphere, generating significantly different ring current conditions and responses to substorms. The observations reveal information about the substorm injected population and the transport of the plasma in the inner magnetosphere.

Sandhu, J.; Rae, I.; Freeman, M.; Gkioulidou, M.; Forsyth, C.; Reeves, G.; Murphy, K.; Walach, M.-T.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026766

inner magnetosphere; ring current; substorms; Van Allen; Van Allen Probes

Reply to \textquoterightThe dynamics of Van Allen belts revisited\textquoteright

Mann, I.; Ozeke, L.; Morley, S.; Murphy, K.; Claudepierre, S.; Turner, D.; Baker, D.; Rae, I.; Kale, A.; Milling, D.; Boyd, A.; Spence, H.; Singer, H.; Dimitrakoudis, S.; Daglis, I.; Honary, F.;

Published by: Nature Physics      Published on: 02/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1038/nphys4351

Van Allen Probes

The March 2015 Superstorm Revisited: Phase Space Density Profiles and Fast ULF Wave Diffusive Transport

We present the temporal evolution of electron Phase Space Density (PSD) in the outer radiation belt during the intense March 2015 geomagnetic storm. Comparing observed PSD profiles as a function of L* at fixed first, M, and second, K, adiabatic invariants with those produced by simulations is critical for determining the physical processes responsible for the outer radiation belt dynamics. Here we show that the bulk of the accelerated and enhanced outer radiation belt population consists of electrons with K < 0.17 G1/2Re. For these electrons, the observed PSD versus L* profiles during the recovery phase of the storm have a positive radial gradient. We compare the observed temporal evolution of the PSD profiles during the recovery phase with those produced by radial diffusion simulations driven by observed Ultralow Frequency wave power as measured on the ground. Our results indicate that the dominant flux enhancement, inside L* < 5, in the heart of the outer radiation belt during the March 2015 geomagnetic storm is consistent with that produced by fast inward radial diffusion of electrons from a dynamic outer boundary driven by enhanced Ultralow Frequency wave power.

Ozeke, L.; Mann, I.; Claudepierre, S.; Henderson, M.; Morley, S.; Murphy, K.; Olifer, L.; Spence, H.; Baker, D.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026326

Local Acceleration; March 2015 storm; Phase space density; radial diffusion; Radiation belt; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes


Ion Injection Triggered EMIC Waves in the Earth\textquoterights Magnetosphere

We present Van Allen Probe observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves triggered solely due to individual substorm-injected ions in the absence of storms or compressions of the magnetosphere during 9 August 2015. The time at which the injected ions are observed directly corresponds to the onset of EMIC waves at the location of Van Allen Probe A (L = 5.5 and 18:06 magnetic local time). The injection was also seen at geosynchronous orbit by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite and Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft, and the westward(eastward) drift of ions(electrons) was monitored by Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft at different local times. The azimuthal location of the injection was determined by tracing the injection signatures backward in time to their origin assuming a dipolar magnetic field of Earth. The center of this injection location was determined to be close to \~20:00 magnetic local time. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite and ground magnetometer responses confirm substorm onset at approximately the same local time. The observed EMIC wave onsets at Van Allen Probe were also associated with a magnetic field decrease. The arrival of anisotropic ions along with the decrease in the magnetic field favors the growth of the EMIC wave instability based on linear theory analysis.

Remya, B.; Sibeck, D.; Halford, A.; Murphy, K.; Reeves, G.; Singer, H.; Wygant, J.; Perez, Farinas; Thaller, S.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025354

EMIC waves; Ion injections; magnetic dip; substorm; Van Allen Probes

Determining the mode, frequency, and azimuthal wave number of ULF waves during a HSS and moderate geomagnetic storm

Ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves play a fundamental role in the dynamics of the inner-magnetosphere and outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms. Broadband ULF wave power can transport energetic electrons via radial diffusion and discrete ULF wave power can energize electrons through a resonant interaction. Using observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, we characterize the evolution of ULF waves during a high-speed solar wind stream (HSS) and moderate geomagnetic storm while there is an enhancement of the outer radiation belt. The Automated Flare Inference of Oscillations (AFINO) code is used to distinguish discrete ULF wave power from broadband wave power during the HSS. During periods of discrete wave power and utilizing the close separation of the MMS spacecraft, we estimate the toroidal mode ULF azimuthal wave number throughout the geomagnetic storm. We concentrate on the toroidal mode as the HSSs compresses the day side magnetosphere resulting in an asymmetric magnetic field topology where toroidal mode waves can interact with energetic electrons. Analysis of the mode structure and wave numbers demonstrates that the generation of the observed ULF waves is a combination of externally driven waves, via the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and internally driven waves, via unstable ion distributions. Further analysis of the periods and toroidal azimuthal wave numbers suggests that these waves can couple with the core electron radiation belt population via the drift resonance during the storm. The azimuthal wave number and structure of ULF wave power (broadband or discrete) have important implications for the inner-magnetospheric and radiation belt dynamics.

Murphy, Kyle; Inglis, Andrew; Sibeck, David; Rae, Jonathan; Watt, Clare; Silveira, Marcos; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Claudepierre, Seth; Nakamura, Rumi;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2017JA024877

azimuthal wave number; Geomagnetic storms; mode structure; Radiation belts; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes

The global statistical response of the outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms

Using the total radiation belt electron content calculated from Van Allen Probe phase space density (PSD), the time-dependent and global response of the outer radiation belt during storms is statistically studied. Using PSD reduces the impacts of adiabatic changes in the main phase, allowing a separation of adiabatic and non-adiabatic effects, and revealing a clear modality and repeatable sequence of events in storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. This sequence exhibits an important first adiabatic invariant (μ) dependent behaviour in the seed (150 MeV/G), relativistic (1000 MeV/G), and ultra-relativistic (4000 MeV/G) populations. The outer radiation belt statistically shows an initial phase dominated by loss followed by a second phase of rapid acceleration, whilst the seed population shows little loss and immediate enhancement. The time sequence of the transition to the acceleration is also strongly μ-dependent and occurs at low μ first, appearing to be repeatable from storm to storm.

Murphy, Kyle; Watt, C.; Mann, Ian; Rae, Jonathan; Sibeck, David; Boyd, A.; Forsyth, C.; Turner, D.; Claudepierre, S.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 04/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL076674

Geomagnetic storms; magnetospheric dynamics; Radiation belts; Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Coupling; statistical analysis; Van Allen Probes


Ultra-relativistic radiation belt extinction and ULF wave radial diffusion: Modeling the September 2014 extended dropout event

In September 2014 an unusually long-lasting (≳10 days) ultra-relativistic electron flux depletion occurred in the outer radiation belt despite ongoing solar wind forcing. We simulate this period using a ULF wave radial diffusion model, driven by observed ULF wave power coupled to flux variations at the outer boundary at L* = 5, including empirical electron loss models due to chorus and hiss wave scattering. Our results show that unexplained rapid main phase loss, that depletes the belt within hours, is essential to explain the observations. Such ultra-relativistic electron extinction decouples the prestorm and poststorm fluxes, revealing the subsequent belt dynamics to be surprisingly independent of prestorm flux. However, once this extinction is included, ULF wave transport and coupling to the outer boundary explain the extended depletion event and also the eventual flux recovery. Neither local acceleration nor ongoing losses from hiss or chorus wave scattering to the atmosphere are required.

Ozeke, Louis; Mann, Ian; Murphy, Kyle; Sibeck, David; Baker, Daniel;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 03/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL072811

radial diffusion; Radiation belt; ULF waves; ultrarelativistic; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions


Explaining the dynamics of the ultra-relativistic third Van Allen radiation belt

Since the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts over 50 years ago, an explanation for their complete dynamics has remained elusive. Especially challenging is understanding the recently discovered ultra-relativistic third electron radiation belt. Current theory asserts that loss in the heart of the outer belt, essential to the formation of the third belt, must be controlled by high-frequency plasma wave\textendashparticle scattering into the atmosphere, via whistler mode chorus, plasmaspheric hiss, or electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. However, this has failed to accurately reproduce the third belt. Using a datadriven, time-dependent specification of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves we show for the first time how the third radiation belt is established as a simple, elegant consequence of storm-time extremely fast outward ULF wave transport. High-frequency wave\textendashparticle scattering loss into the atmosphere is not needed in this case. When rapid ULF wave transport coupled to a dynamic boundary is accurately specified, the sensitive dynamics controlling the enigmatic ultra-relativistic third radiation belt are naturally explained.

Mann, I.; Ozeke, L.; Murphy, K.; Claudepierre, S.; Turner, D.; Baker, D.; Rae, I.; Kale, A.; Milling, D.; Boyd, A.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Singer, H.; Dimitrakoudis, S.; Daglis, I.; Honary, F.;

Published by: Nature Physics      Published on: 06/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1038/nphys3799

Astrophysical plasmas; Magnetospheric physics; Van Allen Probes

What effect do substorms have on the content of the radiation belts?

Substorms are fundamental and dynamic processes in the magnetosphere, converting captured solar wind magnetic energy into plasma energy. These substorms have been suggested to be a key driver of energetic electron enhancements in the outer radiation belts. Substorms inject a keV \textquotedblleftseed\textquotedblright population into the inner magnetosphere which is subsequently energized through wave-particle interactions up to relativistic energies; however, the extent to which substorms enhance the radiation belts, either directly or indirectly, has never before been quantified. In this study, we examine increases and decreases in the total radiation belt electron content (TRBEC) following substorms and geomagnetically quiet intervals. Our results show that the radiation belts are inherently lossy, shown by a negative median change in TRBEC at all intervals following substorms and quiet intervals. However, there are up to 3 times as many increases in TRBEC following substorm intervals. There is a lag of 1\textendash3 days between the substorm or quiet intervals and their greatest effect on radiation belt content, shown in the difference between the occurrence of increases and losses in TRBEC following substorms and quiet intervals, the mean change in TRBEC following substorms or quiet intervals, and the cross correlation between SuperMAG AL (SML) and TRBEC. However, there is a statistically significant effect on the occurrence of increases and decreases in TRBEC up to a lag of 6 days. Increases in radiation belt content show a significant correlation with SML and SYM-H, but decreases in the radiation belt show no apparent link with magnetospheric activity levels.

Forsyth, C.; Rae, I.; Murphy, K.; Freeman, M.; Huang, C.-L.; Spence, H.; Boyd, A.; Coxon, J.; Jackman, C.; Kalmoni, N.; Watt, C.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022620

enhancements; losses; Radiation belts; substorm


BARREL observations of an ICME-Shock impact with the magnetosphere and the resultant radiation belt electron loss.

The Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) mission of opportunity working in tandem with the Van Allen Probes was designed to study the loss of radiation belt electrons to the ionosphere and upper atmosphere. BARREL is also sensitive to X-rays from other sources. During the second BARREL campaign the Sun produced an X-class flare followed by a solar energetic particle event (SEP) associated with the same active region. Two days later on 9 January 2014 the shock generated by the coronal mass ejection (CME) originating from the active region hit the Earth while BARREL was in a close conjunction with the Van Allen Probes. Time History Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) observed the impact of the ICME-shock near the magnetopause, and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) satellites were on either side of the BARREL/Van Allen Probe array. The solar interplanetary magnetic field was not ideally oriented to cause a significant geomagnetic storm, but compression from the shock impact led to the loss of radiation belt electrons. We propose that an azimuthal electric field impulse generated by magnetopause compression caused inward electron transport and minimal loss. This process also drove chorus waves, which were responsible for most of the precipitation observed outside the plasmapause. Observations of hiss inside the plasmapause explains the absence of loss at this location. ULF waves were found to be correlated withthe structure of the precipitation. We demonstrate how BARREL can monitor precipitation following a ICME-shock impact at Earth in a cradle-to-grave view; from flare, to SEP, to electron precipitation.

Halford, A.; McGregor, S.; Murphy, K.; Millan, R.; Hudson, M.; Woodger, L.; Cattel, C.; Breneman, A.; Mann, I.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Gkioulidou, M.; Fennell, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020873

BARREL; Van Allen Probes


A ULF wave driver of ring current energization

ULF wave radial diffusion plays an important role in the transport of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt, yet similar ring current transport is seldom considered even though ions satisfy a nearly identical drift resonance condition albeit without the relativistic correction. By examining the correlation between ULF wave power and the response of the ring current, characterized by Dst, we demonstrate a definite correlation between ULF wave power and Dst. Significantly, the lagged correlation peaks such that ULF waves precede the response of the ring current and Dst. We suggest that this correlation is the result of enhanced radial transport and energization of ring current ions through drift resonance and ULF wave radial diffusion of ring current ions. An analysis and comparison of the ion and electron diffusion coefficients further support this conclusion, ULF waves providing an important missing physical transport process explaining Dst underestimation in ring current models.

Murphy, Kyle; Mann, Ian; Ozeke, Louis;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 10/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/grl.v41.1910.1002/2014GL061253

Dst; radial diffusion; ring current dynamics; ULF waves; wave particle interactions

Modeling cross L shell impacts of magnetopause shadowing and ULF wave radial diffusion in the Van Allen belts

We present simulations of the outer electron radiation belt using a new ULF wave-driven radial diffusion model, including empirical representations of loss due to chorus and plasmaspheric hiss. With an outer boundary condition constrained by in situ electron flux observations, we focus on the impacts of magnetopause shadowing and outward radial diffusion in the heart of the radiation belt. Third invariant conserving solutions are combined to simulate the L shell and time dependence of the differential flux at a fixed energy. Results for the geomagnetically quiet year of 2008 demonstrate not only remarkable cross L shell impacts from magnetopause shadowing but also excellent agreement with the in situ observations even though no internal acceleration source is included in the model. Our model demonstrates powerful utility for capturing the cross-L impacts of magnetopause shadowing with significant prospects for improved space weather forecasting. The potential role of the plasmasphere in creating a third belt is also discussed.

Ozeke, Louis; Mann, Ian; Turner, Drew; Murphy, Kyle; Degeling, Alex; Rae, Jonathan; Milling, David;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 10/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL060787

magnetopause shadowing; Radiation belt; ULF wave radial diffusion

Analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients

We present analytic expressions for ULF wave-derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, as a function of L and Kp, which can easily be incorporated into global radiation belt transport models. The diffusion coefficients are derived from statistical representations of ULF wave power, electric field power mapped from ground magnetometer data, and compressional magnetic field power from in situ measurements. We show that the overall electric and magnetic diffusion coefficients are to a good approximation both independent of energy. We present example 1-D radial diffusion results from simulations driven by CRRES-observed time-dependent energy spectra at the outer boundary, under the action of radial diffusion driven by the new ULF wave radial diffusion coefficients and with empirical chorus wave loss terms (as a function of energy, Kp and L). There is excellent agreement between the differential flux produced by the 1-D, Kp-driven, radial diffusion model and CRRES observations of differential electron flux at 0.976 MeV\textemdasheven though the model does not include the effects of local internal acceleration sources. Our results highlight not only the importance of correct specification of radial diffusion coefficients for developing accurate models but also show significant promise for belt specification based on relatively simple models driven by solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed or geomagnetic indices such as Kp.

Ozeke, Louis; Mann, Ian; Murphy, Kyle; Rae, Jonathan; Milling, David;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019204

Diffusion Coefficient; Radiation belt; ULF wave

Spatial localization and ducting of EMIC waves: Van Allen Probes and ground-based observations

On 11 October 2012, during the recovery phase of a moderate geomagnetic storm, an extended interval (> 18 h) of continuous electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves was observed by Canadian Array for Real-time Investigations of Magnetic Activity and Solar-Terrestrial Environment Program induction coil magnetometers in North America. At around 14:15 UT, both Van Allen Probes B and A (65\textdegree magnetic longitude apart) in conjunction with the ground array observed very narrow (ΔL ~ 0.1\textendash0.4) left-hand polarized EMIC emission confined to regions of mass density gradients at the outer edge of the plasmasphere at L ~ 4. EMIC waves were seen with complex polarization patterns on the ground, in good agreement with model results from Woodroffe and Lysak (2012) and consistent with Earth\textquoterights rotation sweeping magnetometer stations across multiple polarization reversals in the fields in the Earth-ionosphere duct. The narrow L-widths explain the relative rarity of space-based EMIC occurrence, ground-based measurements providing better estimates of global EMIC wave occurrence for input into radiation belt dynamical models.

Mann, I.; Usanova, M.; Murphy, K.; Robertson, M.; Milling, D.; Kale, A.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.; Thaller, S.; Raita, T.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058581

Van Allen Probes