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Found 5 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 5


Evidence of Alfvenic Poynting flux as the primary driver of auroral motion during a geomagnetic substorm

Abstract Geomagnetic substorms are major energy transfer events where energy stored in the Earths magnetotail is released into the ionosphere. Substorm phenomena, including auroral activities, earthward Poynting flux, magnetic field dipolarization, etc, have been extensively studied. However, the complex interplay among them is not fully understood. In a fortuitous event on June 07, 2013, the twin Van Allen Probes (separated by 0.4 hour in local time) observed bursts of earthward Alfvenic Poynting flux in the vicinity of the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL). The Poynting flux bursts correlate with enhancements of auroral brightness around the footpoints of both spacecraft. This indicates a temporal and spatial correlation between the auroral brightening and Poynting flux bursts, and that the auroral motion is directly linked to the perpendicular expansion of the Alfven wave. These observations suggest that the Alfvenic Poynting flux is a primary driver for the auroral electron acceleration. Around the time of auroral brightening, a dipolarization was seen to propagate more than 4 hours in local time during a 20 min period. The azimuthal phase speed of this dipolarization (2 deg/min) is too small to explain the azimuthal motion of the aurora (13.6 deg/min), but the dipolarization could be related to the generation of the Alfvenic Poynting flux through phase mixing at strong density gradients like those in the PSBL. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Tian, S.; Colpitts, C.; Wygant, J.; Cattell, C.; Ferradas, C.; Igl, A.; Larsen, B.; Reeves, G.; Donovan, E.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Poynting flux; auroral physics; discrete arc; Dipolarization; Alfven waves; Van Allen Probes


First Direct Observations of Propagation of Discrete Chorus Elements From the Equatorial Source to Higher Latitudes, Using the Van Allen Probes and Arase Satellites

Whistler mode chorus waves have recently been established as the most likely candidate for scattering relativistic electrons to produce the electron microbursts observed by low altitude satellites and balloons. These waves would have to propagate from the equatorial source region to significantly higher magnetic latitude in order to scatter electrons of these relativistic energies. This theoretically proposed propagation has never been directly observed. We present the first direct observations of the same discrete rising tone chorus elements propagating from a near equatorial (Van Allen Probes) to an off-equatorial (Arase) satellite. The chorus is observed first on the more equatorial satellite and is found to be more oblique and significantly attenuated at the off-equatorial satellite. This is consistent with the prevailing theory of chorus propagation and with the idea that chorus must propagate from the equatorial source region to higher latitudes. Ray tracing of chorus at the observed frequencies confirms that these elements could be generated parallel to the field at the equator, and propagate through the medium unducted to Van Allen Probes A and then to Arase with the observed time delay, and have the observed obliquity and intensity at each satellite.

Colpitts, Chris; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Delzanno, Gian; Wygant, John; Cattell, Cynthia; Breneman, Aaron; Kletzing, Craig; Cunningham, Greg; Hikishima, Mitsuru; Matsuda, Shoya; Katoh, Yuto; Ripoll, Jean-Francois; Shinohara, Iku; Matsuoka, Ayako;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

Chorus; wave; propagation; Simultaneous observations; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes


Particle Dynamics in the Earth\textquoterights Radiation Belts: Review of Current Research and Open Questions

The past decade transformed our observational understanding of energetic particle processes in near-Earth space. An unprecedented suite of observational systems were in operation including the Van Allen Probes, Arase, MMS, THEMIS, Cluster, GPS, GOES, and LANL-GEO magnetospheric missions. They were supported by conjugate low-altitude measurements on spacecraft, balloons, and ground-based arrays. Together these significantly improved our ability to determine and quantify the mechanisms that control the build-up and subsequent variability of energetic particle intensities in the inner magnetosphere. The high-quality data from NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes are the most comprehensive in-situ measurements ever taken in the near-Earth space radiation environment. These observations, coupled with recent advances in radiation belt theory and modeling, including dramatic increases in computational power, has ushered in a new era, perhaps a \textquotedblleftgolden era,\textquotedblright in radiation belt research. We have edited a Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Science Special Collection dedicated to Particle Dynamics in the Earth\textquoterights Radiation Belts in which we gather the most recent scientific findings and understanding of this important region of geospace. This collection includes the results presented at the American Geophysical Union Chapman International Conference in Cascais, Portugal (03/2018) and many other recent and relevant contributions. The present article introduces and review the context, current research, and main questions that motivate modern radiation belt research divided into the following topics: (1) particle acceleration and transport, (2) particle loss, (3) the role of nonlinear processes, (4) new radiation belt modeling capabilities and the quantification of model uncertainties, and (5) laboratory plasma experiments.

Ripoll, Jean-Francois; Claudepierre, Seth; Ukhorskiy, Sasha; Colpitts, Chris; Li, Xinlin; Fennell, Joe; Crabtree, Chris;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026735

inner magnetosphere; laboratory plasma experiments; Particle acceleration; particle loss; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes


Dayside response of the magnetosphere to a small shock compression: Van Allen Probes, Magnetospheric MultiScale, and GOES-13

Observations from Magnetospheric MultiScale (~8 Re) and Van Allen Probes (~5 and 4 Re) show that the initial dayside response to a small interplanetary shock is a double-peaked dawnward electric field, which is distinctly different from the usual bipolar (dawnward and then duskward) signature reported for large shocks. The associated ExB flow is radially inward. The shock compressed the magnetopause to inside 8 Re, as observed by MMS, with a speed that is comparable to the ExB flow. The magnetopause speed and the ExB speeds were significantly less than the propagation speed of the pulse from MMS to the Van Allen Probes and GOES-13, which is consistent with the MHD fast mode. There were increased fluxes of energetic electrons up to several MeV. Signatures of drift echoes and response to ULF waves also were seen. These observations demonstrate that even very weak shocks can have significant impact on the radiation belts.

Cattell, C.; Breneman, A.; Colpitts, C.; Dombeck, J.; Thaller, S.; Tian, S.; Wygant, J.; Fennell, J.; Hudson, M.; Ergun, Robert; Russell, C.; Torbert, Roy; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Burch, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074895

electric field response; interplanetary shock; magnetopause; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes


Van Allen Probes observations of cross-scale coupling between electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves and higher-frequency wave modes

We present observations of higher-frequency (~50\textendash2500 Hz, ~0.1\textendash0.7 fce) wave modes modulated at the frequency of colocated lower frequency (0.5\textendash2 Hz, on the order of fci) waves. These observations come from the Van Allen Probes Electric Field and Waves instrument\textquoterights burst mode data and represent the first observations of coupling between waves in these frequency ranges. The higher-frequency wave modes, typically whistler mode hiss and chorus or magnetosonic waves, last for a few to a few tens of seconds but are in some cases observed repeatedly over several hours. The higher-frequency waves are observed to be unmodulated before and after the presence of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, but when the EMIC waves are present, the amplitude of the higher-frequency waves drops to the instrument noise level once every EMIC wave cycle. Such modulation could significantly impact wave-particle interactions such as acceleration and pitch angle scattering, which are crucial in the formation and depletion of the radiation belts. We present one case study with broadband, high-frequency waves observed to be modulated by EMIC waves repeatedly over a 2 h time span on both spacecraft. Finally, we show two additional case studies where other high-frequency wave modes exhibit similar modulation.

Colpitts, C.; Cattell, C.; Engebretson, M.; Broughton, M.; Tian, S.; Wygant, J.; Breneman, A.; Thaller, S.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 11/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071566

EMIC; Modulation; precipitation; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes; wave; whistler