Found 23 entries in the Bibliography.
Showing entries from 1 through 23
Abstract Measurements of electromagnetic waves in space plasmas are an important tool for our understanding of physical processes in this environment. Inter-calibration of data from different spacecraft missions is necessary for combining their measurements in empirical models or in case studies. We show results collected during a close conjunction of the Van Allen Probes and Arase spacecraft. The inter-calibration is based on a fortuitous case of common observations of strong whistlers at frequencies between a few hundred hertz and 10 kHz, which are generated by the same lightning strokes and which propagate along very similar paths to the two spacecraft. Measured amplitudes of the magnetic field fluctuations are the same within ∼14\% precision of our analysis, corresponding to 1.2 dB. Currently archived electric field measurements show twice larger amplitudes on Arase compared to Van Allen Probes but they start to match within ∼33\% precision (2.5 dB) once the newest results on the interface of the antennas to the surrounding plasma are included in the calibration procedures. Ray tracing simulations help us to build a consistent scenario of wave propagation to both spacecraft reflected by a successful inter-calibration of the polarization and propagation parameters obtained from multicomponent measurements. We succeed in linking the spacecraft observations to localizations of lightning return strokes by two different ground based networks which independently verify the correctness of the Universal Time tags of waveform measurements by both spacecraft missions, with an uncertainty better than 10 ms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 09/2021
YEAR: 2021   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029700
Abstract We compare ESA PROBA-V observations of electron flux at LEO with those from the NASA Van Allen Probes mostly at MEO for October 2013. Dropouts are visible at all energy during 4 storms from both satellites. Equatorial trapped electron fluxes are higher than at LEO by 102 (<1 MeV) to 105 (>2.5 MeV). We observe a quite isotropic structure of the outer belt during quiet times, contrary to the inner belt, and pitch angle dependence of high energy injection. We find very good overlap of the outer belt at MEO and LEO at ∼0.5 MeV. We use test-particle simulations of the energetic electrons trapped in the terrestrial magnetic field to study the outer radiation belt electron flux changes during geomagnetic storms. We show that the Dst (Disturbance storm time) effect during the main phase of a geomagnetic storm results in a betatron mechanism causing outward radial drift and a deceleration of the electrons. This outward drift motion is energy independent, pitch angle dependent, and represent a significant distance (∼1 L-shell at L=5 for moderate storms). At fixed L-shell, this causes a decay of the LEO precipitating flux (adiabatic outward motion), followed by a return to the normal state (adiabatic inward motion) during main and recovery phases. Dst effect, associated with magnetopause shadowing and radial diffusion can explain the main characteristics of outer radiation belt electron dropouts in October 2013. We also use Fokker-Planck simulations with event-driven diffusion coefficients at high temporal resolution, in order to distinguish instantaneous loss from the gradual scattering that depopulates the slot region and the outer belt after storms. Simulations reproduce the slot formation and the gradual loss in the outer belt. The typical energy-dependence of these losses leads to the absence of scattering for relativistic and ultra-relativistic electrons in the outer belt, oppositely to dropouts.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 05/2021
YEAR: 2021   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028850
Recent availability of a considerable amount of satellite and ground-based data has allowed us to analyze rare conjugated events where extremely low and very low frequency waves from the same source region are observed in different locations. Here, we report a quasiperiodic (QP) emission, showing one-to-one correspondence, observed by three satellites in space (Arase and the Van Allen Probes) and a ground station. The main event was on 29 November 2018 from 12:06 to 13:08 UT during geomagnetically quiet times. Using the position of the satellites we estimated the spatial extent of the area where the one-to-one correspondence is observed. We found this to be up to 1.21 Earth s radii by 2.26 hr MLT, in radial and longitudinal directions, respectively. Using simple ray tracing calculations, we discuss the probable source location of these waves. At ∼12:20 UT, changes in the frequency sweep rate of the QP elements are observed at all locations associated with magnetic disturbances. We also discuss temporal changes of the spectral shape of QP observed simultaneously in space and on the ground, suggesting the changes are related to properties of the source mechanisms of the waves. This could be linked to two separate sources or a larger source region with different source intensities (i.e., electron flux). At frequencies below the low hybrid resonance, waves can experience attenuation and/or reflection in the magnetosphere. This could explain the sudden end of the observations at the spacecraft, which are moving away from the area where waves can propagate.
Martinez-Calderon, C.; Němec, F.; Katoh, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Kletzing, C.; Hospodarsky, G.; Santolik, O.; Kasahara, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Kumamoto, A.; Tsuchiya, F.; Matsuoka, A.; Shoji, M.; Teramoto, M.; Kurita, S.; Miyoshi, Y.; Ozaki, M.; Nishitani, N.; Oinats, A.; Kurkin, V.;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 08/2020
YEAR: 2020   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028126
Whistler mode waves observed in the Earth s inner magnetosphere at frequencies between about 0.5 and 4 kHz which exhibit a nearly periodic time modulation of the wave intensity are called quasiperiodic (QP) emissions. Conjugate measurements of QP events at several different locations can be used to estimate their spatial extent and spatiotemporal variability. Results obtained using conjugate QP measurements provided by the ground-based station Kannuslehto (L≈5.5) and the Van Allen Probes spacecraft (L shells between about 1.1 and 6.5) between September 2012 and November 2017 are presented. Altogether, 26 simultaneously detected events were analyzed. The event modulation periods and frequency-time structures were generally the same at all observation points. Spatial separations of the spacecraft and the ground-based station during conjugate observations are typically within about 40° in azimuth and from about 1 to 3 in L shell. RBSP consistently observes events at lower L shells than Kannuslehto, with the event occurrence primarily inside of the plasmasphere. Ratios of Poynting fluxes observed by the spacecraft and on the ground are used to evaluate event intensity variations related to the spacecraft position. It is found that the intensity decreases considerably both at low L shells and outside of the plasmasphere. Finally, an event containing a gap in its frequency-time structure related to a sudden change of its properties is analyzed in detail.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 05/2020
YEAR: 2020   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA027793
Abstract Quasiperiodic emissions are magnetospheric whistler mode waves at frequencies between about 0.5 and 4 kHz which exhibit a nearly periodic time modulation of the wave intensity. We use large data sets of events observed by the Van Allen Probes in the equatorial region at larger radial distances and by the low-altitude DEMETER spacecraft. While Van Allen Probes observe the events at all local times and longitudes, DEMETER observations are limited nearly exclusively to the daytime and significantly less frequent at the longitudes of the South Atlantic Anomaly. Further, while the events observed by Van Allen Probes are smoothly distributed over seasons with only mild maxima in spring/autumn, DEMETER occurrence rate has a single pronounced minimum in July. The apparent inconsistency is explained by considering a nondipolar Earth s magnetic field and significant background wave intensities which in these cases prevent the quasiperiodic events from being identified in DEMETER data.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 04/2020
YEAR: 2020   DOI: 10.1029/2020JA027918
Abstract We study quasiperiodic very low frequency (VLF) emissions observed simultaneously by Van Allen Probes spacecraft and Kannuslehto and Lovozero ground-based stations on 25 December 2015. Both Van Allen Probes A and B detected quasiperiodic emissions, probably originated from a common source, and observed on the ground. In order to locate possible regions of wave generation, we analyze wave-normal angles with respect to the geomagnetic field, Poynting flux direction, and cyclotron instability growth rate calculated by using the measured phase space density of energetic electrons. We demonstrate that even parallel wave propagation and proper (downward) Poynting flux direction are not sufficient for claiming observations to be in the source region. Agreement between the growth rate and emission bands was obtained for a restricted part of Van Allen Probe A trajectory corresponding to localized enhancement of plasma density with scale of 700 km. We employ spacecraft density data to build a model plasma profile and to calculate ray trajectories from the point of wave detection in space to the ionosphere and examine the possibility of their propagation toward the ground. For the considered event, the wave could propagate toward the ground in the geomagnetic flux tube with enhanced plasma density, which ensured ducted propagation. The region of wave exit was confirmed by the analysis of wave propagation direction at the ground detection point.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 04/2020
YEAR: 2020   DOI: 10.1029/2020JA027776
Quasiperiodic emissions are magnetospheric whistler mode waves at frequencies between about 0.5 and 4 kHz which exhibit a nearly periodic time modulation of the wave intensity. We use large data sets of events observed by the Van Allen Probes in the equatorial region at larger radial distances and by the low-altitude DEMETER spacecraft. While Van Allen Probes observe the events at all local times and longitudes, DEMETER observations are limited nearly exclusively to the daytime and significantly less frequent at the longitudes of the South Atlantic Anomaly. Further, while the events observed by Van Allen Probes are smoothly distributed over seasons with only mild maxima in spring/autumn, DEMETER occurrence rate has a single pronounced minimum in July. The apparent inconsistency is explained by considering a nondipolar Earth s magnetic field and significant background wave intensities which in these cases prevent the quasiperiodic events from being identified in DEMETER data.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 04/2020
YEAR: 2020   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA027918
We study quasiperiodic very low frequency (VLF) emissions observed simultaneously by Van Allen Probes spacecraft and Kannuslehto and Lovozero ground-based stations on 25 December 2015. Both Van Allen Probes A and B detected quasiperiodic emissions, probably originated from a common source, and observed on the ground. In order to locate possible regions of wave generation, we analyze wave-normal angles with respect to the geomagnetic field, Poynting flux direction, and cyclotron instability growth rate calculated by using the measured phase space density of energetic electrons. We demonstrate that even parallel wave propagation and proper (downward) Poynting flux direction are not sufficient for claiming observations to be in the source region. Agreement between the growth rate and emission bands was obtained for a restricted part of Van Allen Probe A trajectory corresponding to localized enhancement of plasma density with scale of 700 km. We employ spacecraft density data to build a model plasma profile and to calculate ray trajectories from the point of wave detection in space to the ionosphere and examine the possibility of their propagation toward the ground. For the considered event, the wave could propagate toward the ground in the geomagnetic flux tube with enhanced plasma density, which ensured ducted propagation. The region of wave exit was confirmed by the analysis of wave propagation direction at the ground detection point.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 04/2020
YEAR: 2020   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA027776
Abstract Recent years have seen debate regarding the ability of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves to drive EEP (energetic electron precipitation) into the Earth s atmosphere. Questions still remain regarding the energies and rates at which these waves are able to interact with electrons. Many studies have attempted to characterize these interactions using simulations; however, these are limited by a lack of precise information regarding the spatial scale size of EMIC activity regions. In this study we examine a fortuitous simultaneous observation of EMIC wave activity by the RBSP-B and Arase satellites in conjunction with ground-based observations of EEP by a subionospheric VLF network. We describe a simple method for determining the longitudinal extent of the EMIC source region based on these observations, calculating a width of 0.75 hr MLT and a drift rate of 0.67 MLT/hr. We describe how this may be applied to other similar EMIC wave events.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 03/2020
YEAR: 2020   DOI: 10.1029/2019GL086599
Abstract Equatorial noise emissions (fast magnetosonic waves) are electromagnetic waves observed routinely in the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere. They propagate with wave vectors nearly perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field; that is, they are limited to frequencies below the lower hybrid frequency. The waves are generated by instabilities of ring-like proton distribution functions, which result in their fine harmonic structure with intensity maxima close to harmonics of the proton cyclotron frequency in the source region. Although most equatorial noise emissions are continuous in time, some events exhibit a clear quasiperiodic time modulation of the wave intensity, with typical modulation periods on the order of minutes. We analyze 72 such events (17 observed by the Cluster spacecraft, 55 observed by the Van Allen Probes spacecraft) for which high-resolution data were available. The analysis of the observed harmonic structure allows us to determine source radial distances of the events. It is found that the calculated source radial distances are generally close to the radial distances where the events were observed. The harmonic numbers where the events are generated range between about 12 and 30. Two events for which the spacecraft passed through the generation region were identified and analyzed. No simultaneous ultra-low-frequency magnetic field pulsations and no periodic plasma number density variations were observed. Although the in situ measured proton distribution functions were shown to be responsible for the wave growth, an insufficient resolution of the particle instruments prevented us from detecting a quasiperiodic modulation possibly present in the particle data.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 03/2020
YEAR: 2020   DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027509
Electromagnetic waves generated by lightning propagate into the plasmasphere as dispersed whistlers. They can therefore influence the overall wave intensity in space, which, in turn, is important for dynamics of the Van Allen radiation belts. We analyze spacecraft measurements in low-Earth orbit as well as in high-altitude equatorial region, together with a ground-based estimate of lightning activity. We accumulate wave intensities when the spacecraft are magnetically connected to thunderstorms and compare them with measurements obtained when thunderstorms are absent. We show that strong lightning activity substantially affects the wave intensity in a wide range of L-shells and altitudes. The effect is observed mainly between 500 Hz and 4 kHz, but its frequency range strongly varies with L-shell, extending up to 12 kHz for L lower than 3. The effect is stronger in the afternoon, evening, and night sectors, consistent with more lightning and easier wave propagation through the ionosphere.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 07/2019
YEAR: 2019   DOI: 10.1029/2019GL083918
Equatorial noise (EN) emissions are observed inside and outside the plasmapause. EN emissions are referred to as magnetosonic mode waves. Using data from Van Allen Probes and Arase, we found conversion from EN emissions to electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the plasmasphere and in the topside ionosphere. A low frequency part of EN emissions becomes EMIC waves through branch splitting of EN emissions, and the mode conversion from EN to EMIC waves occurs around the frequency of M/Q=2 (deuteron and/or alpha particles) cyclotron frequency. These processes result in plasmaspheric EMIC waves. We investigated the ion composition ratio by characteristic frequencies of EN emissions and EMIC waves and obtained ion composition ratios. We found that the maximum composition ratio of M/Q=2 ions is ~10\% below 3000 km. The quantitative estimation of the ion composition will contribute to improving the plasma model of the deep plasmasphere and the topside ionosphere
Miyoshi, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Kurita, S.; Nomura, K.; Keika, K.; Shoji, M.; Kitamura, N.; Kasahara, Y.; Matsuoka, A.; Shinohara, I.; Shiokawa, K.; Machida, S.; Santolik, O.; Boardsen, S.A.; Horne, R.B.; Wygant, J.F.;
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 04/2019
YEAR: 2019   DOI: 10.1029/2019GL083024
We present observations that provide the strongest evidence yet that discrete whistler mode chorus packets cause relativistic electron microbursts. On 20 January 2016 near 1944 UT the low Earth orbiting CubeSat Focused Investigations of Relativistic Electron Bursts: Intensity, Range, and Dynamics (FIREBIRD II) observed energetic microbursts (near L = 5.6 and MLT = 10.5) from its lower limit of 220 keV, to 1 MeV. In the outer radiation belt and magnetically conjugate, Van Allen Probe A observed rising-tone, lower band chorus waves with durations and cadences similar to the microbursts. No other waves were observed. This is the first time that chorus and microbursts have been simultaneously observed with a separation smaller than a chorus packet. A majority of the microbursts do not have the energy dispersion expected for trapped electrons bouncing between mirror points. This confirms that the electrons are rapidly (nonlinearly) scattered into the loss cone by a coherent interaction with the large amplitude (up to \~900 pT) chorus. Comparison of observed time-averaged microburst flux and estimated total electron drift shell content at L = 5.6 indicate that microbursts may represent a significant source of energetic electron loss in the outer radiation belt.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 11/2017
YEAR: 2017   DOI: 10.1002/2017GL075001
Whistler-mode chorus waves are a naturally occurring electromagnetic emission observed in Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere. Here, for the first time, data from NASA\textquoterights Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission were used to analyze chorus waves in detail, including the calculation of chorus wave normal vectors, k. A case study was examined from a period of substorm activity around the time of a conjunction between the MMS constellation and NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes mission on 07 April 2016. Chorus wave activity was simultaneously observed by all six spacecraft over a broad range of L-shells (5.5 < L < 8.5), magnetic local time (06:00 < MLT < 09:00), and magnetic latitude (-32\textdegree < MLat < -15\textdegree), implying a large chorus active region. Eight chorus elements and their substructure were analyzed in detail with MMS. These chorus elements were all lower band and rising tone emissions, right-handed and nearly circularly polarized, and propagating away from the magnetic equator when they were observed at MMS (MLat ~ -31\textdegree). Most of the elements had \textquotedbllefthook\textquotedblright like signatures on their wave power spectra, characterized by enhanced wave power at flat or falling frequency following the peak, and all the elements exhibited complex and well organized substructure observed consistently at all four MMS spacecraft at separations up to 70 km (60 km perpendicular and 38 km parallel to the background magnetic field). The waveforms in field-aligned coordinates also demonstrated that these waves were all phase coherent allowing for the direct calculation of k. Error estimates on calculated k revealed that the plane wave approximation was valid for six of the eight elements and most of the subelements. The wave normal vectors were within 20-30\textdegree from the direction anti-parallel to the background field for all elements and changed from subelement to subelement through at least two of the eight elements. The azimuthal angle of k in the perpendicular plane was oriented earthward and was oblique to that of the Poynting vector, which has implications for the validity of cold plasma theory.
Turner, D.; Lee, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Jaynes, A.; Leonard, T.; Wilder, F.; Ergun, R.; Baker, D.; Cohen, I.; Mauk, B.; Strangeway, R.; Hartley, D.; Kletzing, C.; Breuillard, H.; Le Contel, O.; Khotyaintsev, Yu; Torbert, R.; Allen, R.; Burch, J.; Santolik, O.;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 10/2017
YEAR: 2017   DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024474
The chorus wave properties are evaluated using Van Allen Probes data in the Earth\textquoterights equatorial magnetosphere. Two distinct modes of lower band chorus are identified: a quasi-parallel mode and a quasi-electrostatic mode, whose wave normal direction is close to the resonance cone. Statistical results indicate that the quasi-electrostatic (quasi-parallel) mode preferentially occurs during relatively quiet (disturbed) geomagnetic activity at lower (higher) L shells. Although the magnetic intensity of the quasi-electrostatic mode is considerably weaker than the quasi-parallel mode, their electric intensities are comparable. A newly identified feature of the quasi-electrostatic mode is that its frequency peaks at higher values compared to the quasi-parallel mode that exhibits a broad frequency spectrum. Moreover, upper band chorus wave normal directions vary between 0\textdegree and the resonance cone and become more parallel as geomagnetic activity increases. Our new findings suggest that chorus-driven energetic electron dynamics needs a careful examination by considering the properties of these two distinct modes.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 05/2016
YEAR: 2016   DOI: 10.1002/2016GL068780
We report on simultaneous spacecraft and ground-based observations of quasiperiodic VLF emissions and related energetic-electron dynamics. Quasiperiodic emissions in the frequency range 2\textendash6 kHz were observed during a substorm on 25 January 2013 by Van Allen Probe-A and a ground-based station in the Northern Finland. The spacecraft detected the VLF signals near the geomagnetic equator in the night sector at L = 3.0\textendash4.2 when it was inside the plasmasphere. During the satellite motion toward higher latitudes, the time interval between quasiperiodic elements decreased from 6 min to 3 min. We find one-to-one correspondence between the quasiperiodic elements detected by Van Allen Probe-A and on the ground, which indicates the temporal nature of the observed variation in the time interval between quasiperiodic elements. Multiсomponent measurements of the wave electric and magnetic fields by the Van Allen Probe-A show that the quasiperiodic emissions were almost circularly right-hand polarized whistler mode waves and had predominantly small (below 30\textdegree) wave vector angles with respect to the magnetic field. In the probable source region of these signals (L about 4), we observed synchronous variations of electron distribution function at energies of 10\textendash20 keV and the quasiperiodic elements. In the pause between the quasiperiodic elements pitch angle distribution of these electrons had a maximum near 90\textdegree, while they become more isotropic during the development of quasiperiodic elements. The parallel energies of the electrons for which the data suggest direct evidence of the wave-particle interactions is in a reasonable agreement with the estimated cyclotron resonance energy for the observed waves.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 08/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/grl.v42.1510.1002/2015GL064911
Equatorial noise (EN) emissions are electromagnetic wave events at frequencies between the proton cyclotron frequency and the lower hybrid frequency observed in the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere. They propagate nearly perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, and they exhibit a harmonic line structure characteristic of the proton cyclotron frequency in the source region. However, they were generally believed to be continuous in time. We investigate more than 2000 EN events observed by the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations and Wide-Band Data Plasma Wave investigation instruments on board the Cluster spacecraft, and we show that this is not always the case. A clear quasiperiodic (QP) time modulation of the wave intensity is present in more than 5\% of events. We perform a systematic analysis of these EN events with QP modulation of the wave intensity. Such events occur usually in the noon-to-dawn magnetic local time sector. Their occurrence seems to be related to the increased geomagnetic activity, and it is associated with the time intervals of enhanced solar wind flow speeds. The modulation period of these events is on the order of minutes. Compressional ULF magnetic field pulsations with periods about double the modulation periods of EN wave intensity and magnitudes on the order of a few tenths of nanotesla were identified in about 46\% of events. We suggest that these compressional magnetic field pulsations might be responsible for the observed QP modulation of EN wave intensity, in analogy to formerly reported VLF whistler mode QP events.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 04/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020816
Equatorial noise (EN) emissions are electromagnetic waves observed in the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere at frequencies between the proton cyclotron frequency and the lower hybrid frequency. We present the analysis of 2229 EN events identified in the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF) experiment data of the Cluster spacecraft during the years 2001\textendash2010. EN emissions are distinguished using the polarization analysis, and their intensity is determined based on the evaluation of the Poynting flux rather than on the evaluation of only the electric/magnetic field intensity. The intensity of EN events is analyzed as a function of the frequency, the position of the spacecraft inside/outside the plasmasphere, magnetic local time, and the geomagnetic activity. The emissions have higher frequencies and are more intense in the plasma trough than in the plasmasphere. EN events observed in the plasma trough are most intense close to the local noon, while EN events observed in the plasmasphere are nearly independent on magnetic local time (MLT). The intensity of EN events is enhanced during disturbed periods, both inside the plasmasphere and in the plasma trough. Observations of the same events by several Cluster spacecraft allow us to estimate their spatiotemporal variability. EN emissions observed in the plasmasphere do not change on the analyzed spatial scales (ΔMLT<0.2h, Δr<0.2 RE), but they change significantly on time scales of about an hour. The same appears to be the case also for EN events observed in the plasma trough, although the plasma trough dependencies are less clear.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 03/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020814
Pulsating auroras show quasi-periodic intensity modulations caused by the precipitation of energetic electrons of the order of tens of keV. It is expected theoretically that not only these electrons but also sub-relativistic/relativistic electrons precipitate simultaneously into the ionosphere owing to whistler-mode wave\textendashparticle interactions. The height-resolved electron density profile was observed with the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) Troms\o VHF radar on 17 November 2012. Electron density enhancements were clearly identified at altitudes >68 km in association with the pulsating aurora, suggesting precipitation of electrons with a broadband energy range from ~10 keV up to at least 200 keV. The riometer and network of subionospheric radio wave observations also showed the energetic electron precipitations during this period. During this period, the footprint of the Van Allen Probe-A satellite was very close to Troms\o and the satellite observed rising tone emissions of the lower-band chorus (LBC) waves near the equatorial plane. Considering the observed LBC waves and electrons, we conducted a computer simulation of the wave\textendashparticle interactions. This showed simultaneous precipitation of electrons at both tens of keV and a few hundred keV, which is consistent with the energy spectrum estimated by the inversion method using the EISCAT observations. This result revealed that electrons with a wide energy range simultaneously precipitate into the ionosphere in association with the pulsating aurora, providing the evidence that pulsating auroras are caused by whistler chorus waves. We suggest that scattering by propagating whistler simultaneously causes both the precipitations of sub-relativistic electrons and the pulsating aurora.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 03/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020690
We report results of a systematic analysis of equatorial noise (EN) emissions which are also known as fast magnetosonic waves. EN occurs in the vicinity of the geomagnetic equator at frequencies between the local proton cyclotron frequency and the lower hybrid frequency. Our analysis is based on the data collected by the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations\textendashSpectrum Analyzer instruments on board the four Cluster spacecraft. The data set covers the period from January 2001 to December 2010. We have developed selection criteria for the visual identification of these emissions, and we have compiled a list of more than 2000 events identified during the analyzed time period. The evolution of the Cluster orbit enables us to investigate a large range of McIlwain\textquoterights parameter from about L\~1.1 to L\~10. We demonstrate that EN can occur at almost all analyzed L shells. However, the occurrence rate is very low (<6\%) at L shells below L=2.5 and above L=8.5. EN mostly occurs between L=3 and L=5.5, and within 7\textdegree of the geomagnetic equator, reaching 40\% occurrence rate. This rate further increases to more than 60\% under geomagnetically disturbed conditions. Analysis of occurrence rates as a function of magnetic local time (MLT) shows strong variations outside of the plasmasphere (with a peak around 15 MLT), while the occurrence rate inside the plasmasphere is almost independent on MLT. This is consistent with the hypothesis that EN is generated in the afternoon sector of the plasmapause region and propagates both inward and outward.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 02/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020268
Wave-particle interactions in the Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts are known to be an efficient process of the exchange of energy between different particle populations, including the energetic radiation belt particles. The whistler mode waves, especially chorus, can control the radiation belt dynamics via linear or nonlinear interactions with both the energetic radiation belt electrons and lower energy electron populations. Wave vector directions are a very important parameter of these wave-particle interactions. We use measurements of whistlermode waves by the WAVES instrument from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) onboard the Van Allen Probes spacecraft covering the equatorial region of the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere in all MLT sectors, and a large database of measurements of the STAFF-SA instrument onboard the Cluster spacecraft, covering different latitudes for a time interval of more than one solar cycle. Multicomponent measurements of these instruments are a basis for the determination of statistical properties of the wave vector directions defined by two spherical angles with respect to the direction of the local magnetic field line. We calculate the probability density functions and probability density functions weighted by the wave intensity for both these angles. This work receives EU support through the FP7-Space grant agreement no 284520 for the MAARBLE collaborative research project.
Published by: Published on: 08/2014
YEAR: 2014   DOI: 10.1109/URSIGASS.2014.6929880
Whistler mode chorus waves in the outer Van Allen belt can have consequences for acceleration of relativistic electrons through wave-particle interactions. New multicomponent waveform measurements have been collected by the Van Allen Probes Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science\textquoterights Waves instrument. We detect fine structure of chorus elements with peak instantaneous amplitudes of a few hundred picotesla but exceptionally reaching up to 3 nT, i.e., more than 1\% of the background magnetic field. The wave vector direction turns by a few tens of degrees within a single chorus element but also within its subpackets. Our analysis of a significant number of subpackets embedded in rising frequency elements shows that amplitudes of their peaks tend to decrease with frequency. The wave vector is quasi-parallel to the background magnetic field for large-amplitude subpackets, while it turns away from this direction when the amplitudes are weaker.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 01/2014
YEAR: 2014   DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058889
The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) investigation on the NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (now named the Van Allen Probes) mission provides key wave and very low frequency magnetic field measurements to understand radiation belt acceleration, loss, and transport. The key science objectives and the contribution that EMFISIS makes to providing measurements as well as theory and modeling are described. The key components of the instruments suite, both electronics and sensors, including key functional parameters, calibration, and performance, demonstrate that EMFISIS provides the needed measurements for the science of the RBSP mission. The EMFISIS operational modes and data products, along with online availability and data tools provide the radiation belt science community with one the most complete sets of data ever collected.
Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Acuna, M.; MacDowall, R.; Torbert, R.; Averkamp, T.; Bodet, D.; Bounds, S.; Chutter, M.; Connerney, J.; Crawford, D.; Dolan, J.; Dvorsky, R.; Hospodarsky, G.; Howard, J.; Jordanova, V.; Johnson, R.; Kirchner, D.; Mokrzycki, B.; Needell, G.; Odom, J.; Mark, D.; Pfaff, R.; Phillips, J.; Piker, C.; Remington, S.; Rowland, D.; Santolik, O.; Schnurr, R.; Sheppard, D.; Smith, C.; Thorne, R.; Tyler, J.;
Published by: Space Science Reviews Published on: 11/2013
YEAR: 2013   DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-9993-6