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2007 
Dynamic evolution of energetic outer zone electrons due to waveparticle interactions during storms [1] Relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt are subjected to pitch angle and energy diffusion by chorus, electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC), and hiss waves. Using quasilinear diffusion coefficients for cyclotron resonance with fieldaligned waves, we examine whether the resonant interactions with chorus waves produce a net acceleration or loss of relativistic electrons. We also examine the effect of pitch angle scattering by EMIC and hiss waves during the main and recovery phases of a storm. The numerical simulations show that waveparticle interactions with whistler mode chorus waves with realistic wave spectral properties result in a net acceleration of relativistic electrons, while EMIC waves, which provide very fast scattering near the edge of the loss cone, may be a dominant loss mechanism during the main phase of a storm. In addition, hiss waves are effective in scattering equatorially mirroring electrons and may be an important mechanism of transporting high pitch angle electrons toward the loss cone. Li, W.; Shprits, Y; Thorne, R.; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research Published on: 10/2007 YEAR: 2007 DOI: 10.1029/2007JA012368 
Slot region electron loss timescales due to plasmaspheric hiss and lightninggenerated whistlers [1] Energetic electrons (E > 100 keV) in the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts undergo Dopplershifted cyclotron resonant interactions with a variety of whistler mode waves leading to pitch angle scattering and subsequent loss to the atmosphere. In this study we assess the relative importance of plasmaspheric hiss and lightninggenerated whistlers in the slot region and beyond. Electron loss timescales are determined using the Pitch Angle and energy Diffusion of Ions and Electrons (PADIE) code with global models of the spectral distributions of the wave power based on CRRES observations. Our results show that plasmaspheric hiss propagating at small and intermediate wave normal angles is a significant scattering agent in the slot region and beyond. In contrast, plasmaspheric hiss propagating at large wave normal angles and lightninggenerated whistlers do not contribute significantly to radiation belt loss. The loss timescale of 2 MeV electrons due to plasmaspheric hiss propagating at small and intermediate wave normal angles in the center of the slot region (L = 2.5) lies in the range 1\textendash10 days, consistent with recent Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) observations. Wave turbulence in space, which is responsible for the generation plasmaspheric hiss, thus leads to the formation of the slot region. During active periods, losses due to plasmaspheric hiss may occur on a timescale of 1 day or less for a wide range of energies, 200 keV < E < 1 MeV, in the region 3.5 < L < 4.0. Plasmaspheric hiss may thus also be a significant loss process in the inner region of the outer radiation belt during magnetically disturbed periods. Meredith, Nigel; Horne, Richard; Glauert, Sarah; Anderson, Roger; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research Published on: 08/2007 YEAR: 2007 DOI: 10.1029/2007JA012413 
Review of radiation belt relativistic electron losses We present a brief review of radiation belt electron losses which are vitally important for controlling the dynamics of the radiation belts. A historical overview of early observations is presented, followed by a brief description of important known electron loss mechanisms. We describe key theoretical results and observations related to pitchangle scattering by resonant interaction with plasmaspheric hiss, whistlermode chorus and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, and review recent work on magnetopause losses. In particular, we attempt to organize recent observational data by loss mechanism and their relative importance to the overall rate of loss. We conclude by suggesting future observational and theoretical work that would contribute to our understanding of this important area of radiation belt research. Published by: Journal of Atmospheric and SolarTerrestrial Physics Published on: 03/2007 YEAR: 2007 DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2006.06.019 
2006 
The relativistic electron dropout event on 20 November 2003 is studied using data from a number of satellites including SAMPEX, HEO, ACE, POES, and FAST. The observations suggest that the dropout may have been caused by two separate mechanisms that operate at high and low Lshells, respectively, with a separation at L \~ 5. At high Lshells (L > 5), the dropout is approximately independent of energy and consistent with losses to the magnetopause aided by the Dst effect and outward radial diffusion which can deplete relativistic electrons down to lower Lshells. At low Lshells (L < 5), the dropout is strongly energydependent, with the higherenergy electrons being affected most. Moreover, large precipitation bands of both relativistic electrons and energetic protons are observed at low Lshells which are consistent with intense pitch angle scattering driven by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and may result in a rapid loss of relativistic electrons near the plasmapause in the dusk sector or in plumes of enhanced density. Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Green, J.; Strangeway, R.; Shprits, Y; Baker, D.; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research Published on: 12/2006 YEAR: 2006 DOI: 10.1029/2006JA011802 
Energetic outer zone electron loss timescales during low geomagnetic activity Following enhanced magnetic activity the fluxes of energetic electrons in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt gradually decay to quiettime levels. We use CRRES observations to estimate the energetic electron loss timescales and to identify the principal loss mechanisms. Gradual loss of energetic electrons in the region 3.0 <= L <= 5.0 occurs during quiet periods (Kp < 3) following enhanced magnetic activity on timescales ranging from 1.5 to 3.5 days for 214 keV electrons to 5.5 to 6.5 days for 1.09 MeV electrons. The intervals of decay are associated with large average values of the ratio fpe/fce (>7), indicating that the decay takes place in the plasmasphere. We compute loss timescales for pitchangle scattering by plasmaspheric hiss using the PADIE code with wave properties based on CRRES observations. The resulting timescales suggest that pitch angle scattering by plasmaspheric hiss propagating at small or intermediate wave normal angles is responsible for electron loss over a wide range of energies and L shells. The region where hiss dominates loss is energydependent, ranging from 3.5 <= L <= 5.0 at 214 keV to 3.0 <= L <= 4.0 at 1.09 MeV. Plasmaspheric hiss at large wave normal angles does not contribute significantly to the loss rates. At E = 1.09 MeV the loss timescales are overestimated by a factor of \~5 for 4.5 <= L <= 5.0. We suggest that resonant waveparticle interactions with EMIC waves, which become important at MeV energies for larger L (L > \~4.5), may play a significant role in this region. Meredith, Nigel; Horne, Richard; Glauert, Sarah; Thorne, Richard; Summers, D.; Albert, Jay; Anderson, Roger; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research Published on: 05/2006 YEAR: 2006 DOI: 10.1029/2005JA011516 
2005 
Timescale for MeV electron microburst loss during geomagnetic storms Energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt can resonate with intense bursts of whistlermode chorus emission leading to microburst precipitation into the atmosphere. The timescale for removal of outer zone MeV electrons during the main phase of the October 1998 magnetic storm has been computed by comparing the rate of microburst loss observed on SAMPEX with trapped flux levels observed on Polar. Effective lifetimes are comparable to a day and are relatively independent of L shell. The lifetimes have also been evaluated by theoretical calculations based on quasilinear scattering by fieldaligned waves. Agreement with the observations requires average wideband wave amplitudes comparable to 100 pT, which is consistent with the intensity of chorus emissions observed under active conditions. MeV electron scattering is most efficient during firstorder cyclotron resonance with chorus emissions at geomagnetic latitudes above 30 degrees. Consequently, the zone of MeV microbursts tends to maximize in the prenoon (0400\textendash1200 MLT) sector, since nightside chorus is more strongly confined to the equator. Thorne, R.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Shprits, Y; Summers, D.; Horne, R.; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research Published on: 09/2005 YEAR: 2005 DOI: 10.1029/2004JA010882 
2004 
Quantification of relativistic electron microburst losses during the GEM storms Bursty precipitation of relativistic electrons has been implicated as a major loss process during magnetic storms. One type of precipitation, microbursts, appears to contain enough electrons to empty the prestorm outer radiation belt in approximately a day. During storms that result in high fluxes of trapped relativistic electrons, microbursts continue for several days into the recovery phase, when trapped fluxes are dramatically increasing. The present study shows that this apparent inconsistency is resolved by observations that the number of electrons lost through microbursts is 10\textendash100 times larger during the main phase than during the recovery phase of several magnetic storms chosen by the Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) program. O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Looper, M.; Blake, J.; Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 02/2004 YEAR: 2004 DOI: 10.1029/2003GL018621 
2003 
Evaluation of quasilinear diffusion coefficients for EMIC waves in a multispecies plasma Quasilinear velocityspace diffusion coefficients due to Lmode electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are considered in a multispecies plasma. It is shown, with slight approximations to exact cold plasma theory, that within EMIC pass bands the index of refraction is a monotonically increasing function of frequency. Analytical criteria are then derived which identify ranges of latitude, wavenormal angle, and resonance number consistent with resonance in a prescribed wave population. This leads to computational techniques which allow very efficient calculation of the diffusion coefficients, along the lines previously developed for whistler and ion cyclotron waves in an electronproton plasma. The techniques are applied to radiation belt electrons at L = 4, for EMIC waves in the hydrogen, helium, and oxygen bands representative of different phases of a magnetic storm. Finally, diffusion coefficients for recoveryphase heliumband EMIC waves are combined with those for typical whistler hiss, resulting in electron precipitation lifetimes substantially less than those due to hiss alone. Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research Published on: 06/2003 YEAR: 2003 DOI: 10.1029/2002JA009792 
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves which propagate at frequencies below the proton gyrofrequency can undergo cyclotron resonant interactions with relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt and cause pitchangle scattering and electron loss to the atmosphere. Typical stormtime wave amplitudes of 1\textendash10 nT cause strong diffusion scattering which may lead to significant relativistic electron loss at energies above the minimum energy for resonance, Emin. A statistical analysis of over 800 EMIC wave events observed on the CRRES spacecraft is performed to establish whether scattering can occur at geophysically interesting energies (<=2 MeV). While Emin is well above 2 MeV for the majority of these events, it can fall below 2 MeV in localized regions of high plasma density and/or low magnetic field (fpe/fce,eq > 10) for wave frequencies just below the hydrogen or helium ion gyrofrequencies. These lower energy scattering events, which are mainly associated with resonant Lmode waves, are found within the magnetic local time range 1300 < MLT < 1800 for L > 4.5. The average wave spectral intensity of these events (4\textendash5 nT2/Hz) is sufficient to cause strong diffusion scattering. The spatial confinement of these events, together with the limited set of these waves that resonate with <=2 MeV electrons, suggest that these electrons are only subject to strong scattering over a small fraction of their drift orbit. Consequently, driftaveraged scattering lifetimes are expected to lie in the range of several hours to a day. EMIC wave scattering should therefore significantly affect relativistic electron dynamics during a storm. The waves that resonate with the \~MeV electrons are produced by lowenergy (\~keV) ring current protons, which are expected to be injected into the inner magnetosphere during enhanced convection events. Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research Published on: 06/2003 YEAR: 2003 DOI: 10.1029/2002JA009700 
1] Resonant interactions with whistlermode chorus waves provide an important process for electron loss and acceleration during storm times. We demonstrate that wave propagation significantly affects the electron scattering rates. We show that stormtime chorus waves outside the plasmapause can scatter equatorial electrons <=60 keV into the loss cone and accelerate trapped electrons up to \~ MeV energies at large pitchangles. Using ray tracing to map the waves to higher latitudes, we show that the decrease in the ratio between the electron plasma and gyro frequencies, along with the normalized chorus frequency bandwidth, enable much higher energy electrons \~1 MeV to be scattered into the loss cone. We suggest that off equatorial pitchangle scattering by chorus waves is responsible for relativistic microburst precipitation seen on SAMPEX. Offequatorial scattering at pitchangles well away from the loss cone also contributes to the acceleration of higher energy >=3 MeV electrons. Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 05/2003 YEAR: 2003 DOI: 10.1029/2003GL016973 
[1] During magnetic storms, relativistic electrons execute nearly circular orbits about the Earth and traverse a spatially confined zone within the duskside plasmapause where electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are preferentially excited. We examine the mechanism of electron pitchangle diffusion by gyroresonant interaction with EMIC waves as a cause of relativistic electron precipitation loss from the outer radiation belt. Detailed calculations are carried out of electron cyclotron resonant pitchangle diffusion coefficients Dαα for EMIC waves in a multiion (H+, He+, O+) plasma. A simple functional form for Dαα is used, based on quasilinear theory that is valid for parallelpropagating, smallamplitude electromagnetic waves of general spectral density. For typical observed EMIC wave amplitudes (1\textendash10nT), the rates of resonant pitchangle diffusion are close to the limit of \textquotedblleftstrong\textquotedblright diffusion, leading to intense electron precipitation. In order for gyroresonance to take place, electrons must possess a minimum kinetic energy Emin which depends on the value of the ratio (electron plasma frequency/electron gyrofrequency); Emin also depends on the properties of the EMIC wave spectrum and the ion composition. Geophysically interesting scattering, with Emin comparable to 1 MeV, can only occur in regions where (electron plasma frequency/electron gyrofrequency) >=10, which typically occurs within the duskside plasmapause. Under such conditions, electrons with energy >=1 MeV can be removed from the outer radiation belt by EMIC wave scattering during a magnetic storm over a timescale of several hours to a day. Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research Published on: 04/2003 YEAR: 2003 DOI: 10.1029/2002JA009489 
2002 
Xray observations of MeV electron precipitation with a balloonborne germanium spectrometer The highresolution germanium detector aboard the MAXIS (MeV Auroral Xray Imaging and Spectroscopy) balloon payload detected nine Xray bursts with significant flux extending above 0.5 MeV during an 18 day flight over Antarctica. These minutestohourslong events are characterized by an extremely flat spectrum (\~E2) similar to the first MeV event discovered in 1996, indicating that the bulk of parent precipitating electrons is at relativistic energies. The MeV bursts were detected between magnetic latitudes 58\textdegree\textendash68\textdegree (Lvalues of 3.8\textendash6.7) but only in the late afternoon/dusk sectors (14:30\textendash00:00 MLT), suggesting scattering by EMIC (electromagnetic ion cyclotron) waves as a precipitation mechanism. We estimate the average flux of precipitating E >= 0.5 MeV electrons to be \~360 cm2s1, corresponding to about 5 \texttimes 1025 such electrons precipitated during the eight days at L = 3.8\textendash6.7, compared to \~2 \texttimes 1025 trapped 0.5\textendash3.6 MeV electrons estimated from dosimeter measurements on a GPS spacecraft. These observations show that MeV electron precipitation events are a primary loss mechanism for outer zone relativistic electrons. Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 12/2002 YEAR: 2002 DOI: 10.1029/2002GL015922 
1998 
Electron scattering loss in Earth\textquoterights inner magnetosphere 1. Dominant physical processes Pitch angle diffusion rates due to Coulomb collisions and resonant interactions with plasmaspheric hiss, lightninginduced whistlers and anthropogenic VLF transmissions are computed for inner magnetospheric electrons. The bounceaveraged, quasilinear pitch angle diffusion coefficients are input into a pure pitch angle diffusion equation to obtain L and energy dependent equilibrium distribution functions and precipitation lifetimes. The relative effects of each scattering mechanism are considered as a function of electron energy and L shell. Model calculations accurately describe the enhanced loss rates in the slot region, as well as reduced scattering in the heavily populated inner radiation belt. Predicted electron distribution function calculations in the slot region display a characteristic \textquotedbllefttop hat\textquotedblright distribution which is supported by observations. Inner zone electron lifetimes based on observed decay rates of the Starfish electron population are in approximate agreement with model predictions. Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research Published on: 02/1998 YEAR: 1998 DOI: 10.1029/97JA02919 
1973 
Equilibrium Structure of Radiation Belt Electrons The detailed quiet time structure of energetic electrons in the earth\textquoterights radiation belts is explained on the basis of a balance between pitch angle scattering loss and inward radial diffusion from an average outer zone source. Losses are attributed to a combination of classical Coulomb scattering at low L and whistler mode turbulent pitch angle diffusion throughout the outer plasmasphere. Radial diffusion is driven by substorm associated fluctuations of the magnetospheric convection electric field. Lyons, Lawrence; Thorne, Richard; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research Published on: 05/1973 YEAR: 1973 DOI: 10.1029/JA078i013p02142 
1972 
Parasitic Pitch Angle Diffusion of Radiation Belt Particles by Ion Cyclotron Waves The resonant pitch angle scattering of protons and electrons by ion cyclotron turbulence is investigated. The analysis is analogous to that recently performed for electron interactions with whistler mode waves. The role played by the intense band of ion cyclotron waves, predicted to be generated just within the plasmapause during the decay of the magnetospheric ring current, is evaluated in detail. Loss rates resulting from parasitic interactions with this turbulence are determined for energetic protons and relativistic electrons. Lyons, Lawrence; Thorne, Richard; Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research Published on: 10/1972 YEAR: 1972 DOI: 10.1029/JA077i028p05608 
1966 
Velocity Space Diffusion from Weak Plasma Turbulence in a Magnetic Field The quasilinear velocity space diffusion is considered for waves of any oscillation branch propagating at an arbitrary angle to a uniform magnetic field in a spatially uniform plasma. The spaceaveraged distribution function is assumed to change slowly compared to a gyroperiod and characteristic times of the wave motion. Nonlinear mode coupling is neglected. An Hlike theorem shows that both resonant and nonresonant quasilinear diffusion force the particle distributions towards marginal stablity. Creation of the marginally stable state in the presence of a sufficiently broad wave spectrum in general involves diffusing particles to infinite energies, and so the marginally stable plateau is not accessible physically, except in special cases. Resonant particles with velocities much larger than typical phase velocities in the excited spectrum are scattered primarily in pitch angle about the magnetic field. Only particles with velocities the order of the wave phase velocities or less are scattered in energy at a rate comparable with their pitch angle scattering rate. Published by: Physics of Fluids Published on: 12/1966 YEAR: 1966 DOI: 10.1063/1.1761629 
Limit on Stably Trapped Particle Fluxes Whistler mode noise leads to electron pitch angle diffusion. Similarly, ion cyclotron noise couples to ions. This diffusion results in particle precipitation into the ionosphere and creates a pitch angle distributon of trapped particles that is unstable to further wave growth. Since excessive wave growth leads to rapid diffusion and particle loss, the requirement that the growth rate be limited to the rate at which wave energy is depleted by wave propagation permits an estimate of an upper limit to the trapped equatorial particle flux. Electron fluxes >40 kev and proton fluxes >120 kev observed on Explorers 14 and 12, respectively, obey this limit with occasional exceptions. Beyond L = 4, the fluxes are just below their limit, indicating that an unspecified acceleration source, sufficient to keep the trapped particles near their precipitation limit, exists. Limiting proton and electron fluxes are roughly equal, suggesting a partial explanation for the existence of larger densities of highenergy protons than of electrons. Observed electron pitch angle profiles correspond to a diffusion coefficient in agreement with observed lifetimes. The required equatorial whistler mode wide band noise intensity, 102γ, is not obviously inconsistent with observations and is consistent with the lifetime and with limiting trapped particle intensity. Published by: Journal Geophysical Research Published on: 01/1966 YEAR: 1966 DOI: 10.1029/JZ071i001p00001 
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