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Found 6 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 6


Ring Current Decay

K.Jordanova, Vania;

Published by: Ring Current Investigations The Quest for Space Weather Prediction      Published on:

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-815571-4.00006-8

collisional losses; wave-particle interactions; Geomagnetic storms; Magnetopause Losses; ring current; field line curvature scattering; Van Allen Probes


On the loss of relativistic electrons at geosynchronous altitude: Its dependence on magnetic configurations and external conditions

[1] The present study statistically examines geosynchronous magnetic configurations and external conditions that characterize the loss of geosynchronous MeV electrons. The loss of MeV electrons often takes place during magnetospheric storms, but it also takes place without any clear storm activity. It is found that irrespective of storm activity, the day-night asymmetry of the geosynchronous H (north-south) magnetic component is pronounced during electron loss events. For the loss process, the magnitude, rather than the duration, of the magnetic distortion appears to be important, and its effective duration can be as short as \~30 min. The solar wind dynamic pressure tends to be high and interplanetary magnetic field BZ tends to be southward during electron loss events. Under such external conditions the dayside magnetopause moves closer to Earth, and the day-night magnetic asymmetry is enhanced. As a consequence the area of closed drift orbits shrinks. The magnetic field at the subsolar magnetopause, which is estimated from force balance with the solar wind dynamic pressure, is usually stronger than the nightside geosynchronous magnetic field during electron loss events. It is therefore suggested that geosynchronous MeV electrons on the night side are very often on open drift paths when geosynchronous MeV electrons are lost. Whereas the present result does not preclude the widely accepted idea that MeV electrons are lost to the atmosphere by wave-particle interaction, it suggests that magnetopause shadowing is another plausible loss process of geosynchronous MeV electrons.

Ohtani, S.; Miyoshi, Y.; Singer, H.; Weygand, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 01/2009

YEAR: 2009     DOI: 10.1029/2008JA013391

Magnetopause Losses


Outward radial diffusion driven by losses at magnetopause

Loss mechanisms responsible for the sudden depletions of the outer electron radiation belt are examined based on observations and radial diffusion modeling, with L*-derived boundary conditions. SAMPEX data for October\textendashDecember 2003 indicate that depletions often occur when the magnetopause is compressed and geomagnetic activity is high, consistent with outward radial diffusion for L* > 4 driven by loss to the magnetopause. Multichannel Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) satellite observations show that depletions at higher L occur at energies as low as a few hundred keV, which excludes the possibility of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave-driven pitch angle scattering and loss to the atmosphere at L* > 4. We further examine the viability of the outward radial diffusion loss by comparing CRRES observations with radial diffusion model simulations. Model-data comparison shows that nonadiabatic flux dropouts near geosynchronous orbit can be effectively propagated by the outward radial diffusion to L* = 4 and can account for the main phase depletions of outer radiation belt electron fluxes.

Shprits, Y; Thorne, R.; Friedel, R.; Reeves, G.; Fennell, J.; Baker, D.; Kanekal, S.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 11/2006

YEAR: 2006     DOI: 10.1029/2006JA011657

Magnetopause Losses

Storm time evolution of the outer radiation belt: Transport and losses

During geomagnetic storms the magnetic field of the inner magnetosphere exhibits large-scale variations over timescales from minutes to days. Being mainly controlled by the magnetic field the motion of relativistic electrons of the outer radiation belt can be highly susceptible to its variations. This paper investigates evolution of the outer belt during the 7 September 2002 storm. Evolution of electron phase space density is calculated with the use of a test-particle simulation in storm time magnetic and electric fields. The results show that storm time intensification of the ring current produces a large impact on the belt. In contrast to the conventional Dst effect the dominant effects are nonadiabatic and lead to profound and irreversible transformations of the belt. The diamagnetic influence of the partial ring current leads to expansion of electron drift orbits such that their paths intersect the magnetopause leading to rapid electron losses. About 2.5 hr after the storm onset most of the electrons outside L = 5 are lost. The partial ring current pressure also leads to an electron trap in the dayside magnetosphere where electrons stay on closed dayside drift orbits for as long as 11 hours. These sequestered electrons are reinjected into the outer belt due to partial recovery of the ring current. The third adiabatic invariant of these electrons exhibits rapid jumps and changes sign. These jumps produce localized peaks in the L*-profile of electron phase space density which have previously been considered as an observable indication of local electron acceleration.

Ukhorskiy, A; Anderson, B.; Brandt, P.; Tsyganenko, N.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 11/2006

YEAR: 2006     DOI: 10.1029/2006JA011690

Magnetopause Losses


Simulation of the outer radiation belt electron flux decrease during the March 26, 1995, magnetic storm

In this paper we study the variation of the relativistic electron fluxes in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt during the March 26, 1995, magnetic storm. Using observations by the radiation environment monitor (REM) on board the space technology research vehicle (STRV-Ib), we discuss the flux decrease and possible loss of relativistic electrons during the storm main phase. In order to explain the observations we have performed fully adiabatic and guiding center simulations for relativistic equatorial electrons in the nonstationary Tsygarienko96 magnetospheric magnetic field model. In our simulations the drift of electrons through the magnetopause was considered as a loss process. We present our model results and discuss their dependence on the magnetospheric magnetic and electric field model, as well as on the prestorm fluxes used in the simulations.

Desorgher, L.; ühler, P.; Zehnder, A.; ückiger, E.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 09/2000

YEAR: 2000     DOI: 10.1029/2000JA900060

Magnetopause Losses


Multisatellite observations of the outer zone electron variation during the November 3\textendash4, 1993, magnetic storm

The disappearance and reappearance of outer zone energetic electrons during the November 3\textendash4, 1993, magnetic storm is examined utilizing data from the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), the Global Positioning System (GPS) series, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sensors onboard geosynchronous satellites. The relativistic electron flux drops during the main phase of the magnetic storm in association with the large negative interplanetary Bz and rapid solar wind pressure increase late on November 3. Outer zone electrons with E > 3 MeV measured by SAMPEX disappear for over 12 hours at the beginning of November 4. This represents a 3 orders of magnitude decrease down to the cosmic ray background of the detector. GPS and LANL sensors show similar effects, confirming that the flux drop of the energetic electrons occurs near the magnetic equator and at all pitch angles. Enhanced electron precipitation was measured by SAMPEX at L >= 3.5. The outer zone electron fluxes then recover and exceed prestorm levels within one day of the storm onset and the inner boundary of the outer zone moves inward to smaller L (<3). These multiple-satellite measurements provide a data set which is examined in detail and used to determine the mechanisms contributing to the loss and recovery of the outer zone electron flux. The loss of the inner part of the outer zone electrons is partly due to the adiabatic effects associated with the decrease of Dst, while the loss of most of the outer part (those electrons initially at L >= 4.0) are due to either precipitation into the atmosphere or drift to the magnetopause because of the strong compression of the magnetosphere by the solar wind. The recovery of the energetic electron flux is due to the adiabatic effects associated with the increase in Dst, and at lower energies (<0.5 MeV) due to rapid radial diffusion driven by the strong magnetic activity during the recovery phase of the storm. Heating of the electrons by waves may contribute to the energization of the more energetic part (>1.0 MeV) of the outer zone electrons.

Li, Xinlin; Baker, D.; Temerin, M.; Cayton, T.; Reeves, E.; Christensen, R.; Blake, J.; Looper, M.; Nakamura, R.; Kanekal, S.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 01/1997

YEAR: 1997     DOI: 10.1029/97JA01101

Magnetopause Losses