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Found 160 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 151 through 160


Excitation of Poloidal standing Alfven waves through the drift resonance wave-particle interaction

Drift-resonance wave-particle interaction is a fundamental collisionless plasma process studied extensively in theory. Using cross-spectral analysis of electric field, magnetic field, and ion flux data from the Van Allen Probe (Radiation Belt Storm Probes) spacecraft, we present direct evidence identifying the generation of a fundamental mode standing poloidal wave through drift-resonance interactions in the inner magnetosphere. Intense azimuthal electric field (Eφ) oscillations as large as 10mV/m are observed, associated with radial magnetic field (Br) oscillations in the dawn-noon sector near but south of the magnetic equator at L\~5. The observed wave period, Eφ/Br ratio and the 90\textdegree phase lag between Br and Eφ are all consistent with fundamental mode standing Poloidal waves. Phase shifts between particle fluxes and wave electric fields clearly demonstrate a drift resonance with \~90 keV ring current ions. The estimated earthward gradient of ion phase space density provides a free energy source for wave generation through the drift-resonance instability. A similar drift-resonance process should occur ubiquitously in collisionless plasma systems. One specific example is the \textquotedblleftfishbone\textquotedblright instability in fusion plasma devices. In addition, our observations have important implications for the long-standing mysterious origin of Giant Pulsations.

Dai, L.; Takahashi, K; Wygant, J.; Chen, L.; Bonnell, J; Cattell, C.; Thaller, S.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C.; MacDowall, R.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Funsten, H.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/grl.50800

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Electron Acceleration in the Heart of the Van Allen Radiation Belts

The Van Allen radiation belts contain ultrarelativistic electrons trapped in Earth\textquoterights magnetic field. Since their discovery in 1958, a fundamental unanswered question has been how electrons can be accelerated to such high energies. Two classes of processes have been proposed: transport and acceleration of electrons from a source population located outside the radiation belts (radial acceleration) or acceleration of lower-energy electrons to relativistic energies in situ in the heart of the radiation belts (local acceleration). We report measurements from NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Radiation Belt Storm Probes that clearly distinguish between the two types of acceleration. The observed radial profiles of phase space density are characteristic of local acceleration in the heart of the radiation belts and are inconsistent with a predominantly radial acceleration process.

Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Henderson, M.; Morley, S.; Friedel, R.; Funsten, H.; Baker, D.; Kanekal, S.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Thorne, R.; Turner, D.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Larsen, B.; Niehof, J.;

Published by: Science      Published on: 07/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1126/science.1237743

Van Allen Probes

Evolution and slow decay of an unusual narrow ring of relativistic electrons near L ~ 3.2 following the September 2012 magnetic storm

A quantitative analysis is performed on the decay of an unusual ring of relativistic electrons between 3 and 3.5 RE, which was observed by the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope instrument on the Van Allen probes. The ring formed on 3 September 2012 during the main phase of a magnetic storm due to the partial depletion of the outer radiation belt for L > 3.5, and this remnant belt of relativistic electrons persisted at energies above 2 MeV, exhibiting only slow decay, until it was finally destroyed during another magnetic storm on 1 October. This long-term stability of the relativistic electron ring was associated with the rapid outward migration and maintenance of the plasmapause to distances greater than L = 4. The remnant ring was thus immune from the dynamic process, which caused rapid rebuilding of the outer radiation belt at L > 4, and was only subject to slow decay due to pitch angle scattering by plasmaspheric hiss on timescales exceeding 10\textendash20 days for electron energies above 3 MeV. At lower energies, the decay is much more rapid, consistent with the absence of a long-duration electron ring at energies below 2 MeV.

Thorne, R.; Li, W.; Ni, B.; Ma, Q.; Bortnik, J.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Henderson, M.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Turner, D.; Angelopoulos, V.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 06/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/grl.50627

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

A Long-Lived Relativistic Electron Storage Ring Embedded in Earth\textquoterights Outer Van Allen Belt

Since their discovery more than 50 years ago, Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts have been considered to consist of two distinct zones of trapped, highly energetic charged particles. The outer zone is composed predominantly of megaelectron volt (MeV) electrons that wax and wane in intensity on time scales ranging from hours to days, depending primarily on external forcing by the solar wind. The spatially separated inner zone is composed of commingled high-energy electrons and very energetic positive ions (mostly protons), the latter being stable in intensity levels over years to decades. In situ energy-specific and temporally resolved spacecraft observations reveal an isolated third ring, or torus, of high-energy (>2 MeV) electrons that formed on 2 September 2012 and persisted largely unchanged in the geocentric radial range of 3.0 to ~3.5 Earth radii for more than 4 weeks before being disrupted (and virtually annihilated) by a powerful interplanetary shock wave passage.

Baker, D.; Kanekal, S.; Hoxie, V.; Henderson, M.; Li, X.; Spence, H.; Elkington, S.; Friedel, R.; Goldstein, J.; Hudson, M.; Reeves, G.; Thorne, R.; Kletzing, C.; Claudepierre, S.;

Published by: Science      Published on: 04/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1126/science.1233518

RBSP; Van Allen Probes


Observation of two distinct, rapid loss mechanisms during the 20 November 2003 radiation belt dropout event

The relativistic electron dropout event on 20 November 2003 is studied using data from a number of satellites including SAMPEX, HEO, ACE, POES, and FAST. The observations suggest that the dropout may have been caused by two separate mechanisms that operate at high and low L-shells, respectively, with a separation at L \~ 5. At high L-shells (L > 5), the dropout is approximately independent of energy and consistent with losses to the magnetopause aided by the Dst effect and outward radial diffusion which can deplete relativistic electrons down to lower L-shells. At low L-shells (L < 5), the dropout is strongly energy-dependent, with the higher-energy electrons being affected most. Moreover, large precipitation bands of both relativistic electrons and energetic protons are observed at low L-shells which are consistent with intense pitch angle scattering driven by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and may result in a rapid loss of relativistic electrons near the plasmapause in the dusk sector or in plumes of enhanced density.

Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Green, J.; Strangeway, R.; Shprits, Y; Baker, D.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 12/2006

YEAR: 2006     DOI: 10.1029/2006JA011802

Local Loss due to VLF/ELF/EMIC Waves

Outward radial diffusion driven by losses at magnetopause

Loss mechanisms responsible for the sudden depletions of the outer electron radiation belt are examined based on observations and radial diffusion modeling, with L*-derived boundary conditions. SAMPEX data for October\textendashDecember 2003 indicate that depletions often occur when the magnetopause is compressed and geomagnetic activity is high, consistent with outward radial diffusion for L* > 4 driven by loss to the magnetopause. Multichannel Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) satellite observations show that depletions at higher L occur at energies as low as a few hundred keV, which excludes the possibility of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave-driven pitch angle scattering and loss to the atmosphere at L* > 4. We further examine the viability of the outward radial diffusion loss by comparing CRRES observations with radial diffusion model simulations. Model-data comparison shows that nonadiabatic flux dropouts near geosynchronous orbit can be effectively propagated by the outward radial diffusion to L* = 4 and can account for the main phase depletions of outer radiation belt electron fluxes.

Shprits, Y; Thorne, R.; Friedel, R.; Reeves, G.; Fennell, J.; Baker, D.; Kanekal, S.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 11/2006

YEAR: 2006     DOI: 10.1029/2006JA011657

Magnetopause Losses

Where Are the "Killer Electrons" of the Declining Phase of Solar Cycle 23

\textquotedblleftKiller electrons,\textquotedblright enhanced fluxes of radiation belt electrons in the magnetosphere\textendashespecially those at geosynchronous orbit (GEO)\textendashwere an important space weather phenomenon during the decline to minimum of the last 11-year solar cycle (1993\textendash1995). Indeed, the fluxes of these electrons were reported at the time to have significantly influenced the incidence of anomalies on numerous spacecraft, both commercial and national defense. The incidences of spacecraft anomalies and the \textquotedblleftpumping up\textquotedblright of the GEO electron fluxes gave rise to the picture that solar minimum did not provide a benign environment for space-based technologies as had been assumed by many. The decline to minimum of this current (23th) solar cycle has as yet to produce the same number of reported spacecraft anomalies as the previous cycle. This cycle has also failed to produce the periodic large increases in GEO electron fluxes (insofar as can be ascertained from the fluxes reported from the NOAA GOES spacecraft). Why is this? Is there less reporting by industry and government of anomalies than there was in the past? Or is it that there are not such high fluxes of energetic electrons as there were during the last approach to solar minimum? These are important questions for future space weather modeling and forecasting that need to be addressed by the space weather research and operations communities. A major cause of the enhanced energetic electrons during the declining phase of the 22nd cycle was the Where Are the \textquotedblleftKiller Electrons\textquotedblright of the Declining Phase of Solar Cycle 2... 1 of 2 8/7/2014 9:30 AM Browse Publications Browse by Subject Resources Help About Us | Advertisers | Agents | Contact Us | Cookies Media | Privacy | Site Map | Terms \& Conditions Copyright \textcopyright 1999-2014 John Wiley \& Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved. occurrence of quasiperiodic geomagnetic storms that arose throughout the interval of decline. The precise physical mechanism or mechanisms by which these storms produced the fluxes of killer electrons is still a matter of intense theoretical debate in the scientific literature. These storms were caused by high-speed solar wind streams in the interplanetary medium; that is, by the interactions of these streams with Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere. Is the interplanetary structure different during this decline to solar maximum than in the previous cycle? Or are there one or more other physical factors operating to seemingly lessen the effects of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field on Earth\textquoterights space environment? These are important questions for future space weather scientific research, research that could make major contributions to eventual practical applications. We encourage the space weather community to address with vigor and creativity in the next months the questions we raise here, prior to the beginning of the 24th solar cycle.

Baker, Daniel; Lanzerotti, Louis;

Published by: Space Weather      Published on: 07/2006

YEAR: 2006     DOI: 10.1029/2006SW000259

Radiation belts


Wave acceleration of electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts

The Van Allen radiation belts1 are two regions encircling the Earth in which energetic charged particles are trapped inside the Earth\textquoterights magnetic field. Their properties vary according to solar activity2, 3 and they represent a hazard to satellites and humans in space4, 5. An important challenge has been to explain how the charged particles within these belts are accelerated to very high energies of several million electron volts. Here we show, on the basis of the analysis of a rare event where the outer radiation belt was depleted and then re-formed closer to the Earth6, that the long established theory of acceleration by radial diffusion is inadequate; the electrons are accelerated more effectively by electromagnetic waves at frequencies of a few kilohertz. Wave acceleration can increase the electron flux by more than three orders of magnitude over the observed timescale of one to two days, more than sufficient to explain the new radiation belt. Wave acceleration could also be important for Jupiter, Saturn and other astrophysical objects with magnetic fields.

Horne, Richard; Thorne, Richard; Shprits, Yuri; Meredith, Nigel; Glauert, Sarah; Smith, Andy; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Baker, Daniel; Engebretson, Mark; Posch, Jennifer; Spasojevic, Maria; Inan, Umran; Pickett, Jolene; Decreau, Pierrette;

Published by: Nature      Published on: 09/2005

YEAR: 2005     DOI: 10.1038/nature03939

Local Acceleration due to Wave-Particle Interaction


An extreme distortion of the Van Allen belt arising from the \textquoteleftHallowe\textquoterighten\textquoteright solar storm in 2003

The Earth\textquoterights radiation belts\textemdashalso known as the Van Allen belts1\textemdashcontain high-energy electrons trapped on magnetic field lines2, 3. The centre of the outer belt is usually 20,000\textendash25,000 km from Earth. The region between the belts is normally devoid of particles2, 3, 4, and is accordingly favoured as a location for spacecraft operation because of the benign environment5. Here we report that the outer Van Allen belt was compressed dramatically by a solar storm known as the \textquoteleftHallowe\textquoterighten storm\textquoteright of 2003. From 1 to 10 November, the outer belt had its centre only ~10,000 km from Earth\textquoterights equatorial surface, and the plasmasphere was similarly displaced inwards. The region between the belts became the location of high particle radiation intensity. This remarkable deformation of the entire magnetosphere implies surprisingly powerful acceleration and loss processes deep within the magnetosphere.

Baker, D.; Kanekal, S.; Li, X.; Monk, S.; Goldstein, J.; Burch, J.;

Published by: Nature      Published on: 12/2004

YEAR: 2004     DOI: 10.1038/nature03116

Shock-Induced Transport. Slot Refilling and Formation of New Belts.


Multisatellite observations of the outer zone electron variation during the November 3\textendash4, 1993, magnetic storm

The disappearance and reappearance of outer zone energetic electrons during the November 3\textendash4, 1993, magnetic storm is examined utilizing data from the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), the Global Positioning System (GPS) series, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sensors onboard geosynchronous satellites. The relativistic electron flux drops during the main phase of the magnetic storm in association with the large negative interplanetary Bz and rapid solar wind pressure increase late on November 3. Outer zone electrons with E > 3 MeV measured by SAMPEX disappear for over 12 hours at the beginning of November 4. This represents a 3 orders of magnitude decrease down to the cosmic ray background of the detector. GPS and LANL sensors show similar effects, confirming that the flux drop of the energetic electrons occurs near the magnetic equator and at all pitch angles. Enhanced electron precipitation was measured by SAMPEX at L >= 3.5. The outer zone electron fluxes then recover and exceed prestorm levels within one day of the storm onset and the inner boundary of the outer zone moves inward to smaller L (<3). These multiple-satellite measurements provide a data set which is examined in detail and used to determine the mechanisms contributing to the loss and recovery of the outer zone electron flux. The loss of the inner part of the outer zone electrons is partly due to the adiabatic effects associated with the decrease of Dst, while the loss of most of the outer part (those electrons initially at L >= 4.0) are due to either precipitation into the atmosphere or drift to the magnetopause because of the strong compression of the magnetosphere by the solar wind. The recovery of the energetic electron flux is due to the adiabatic effects associated with the increase in Dst, and at lower energies (<0.5 MeV) due to rapid radial diffusion driven by the strong magnetic activity during the recovery phase of the storm. Heating of the electrons by waves may contribute to the energization of the more energetic part (>1.0 MeV) of the outer zone electrons.

Li, Xinlin; Baker, D.; Temerin, M.; Cayton, T.; Reeves, E.; Christensen, R.; Blake, J.; Looper, M.; Nakamura, R.; Kanekal, S.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 01/1997

YEAR: 1997     DOI: 10.1029/97JA01101

Magnetopause Losses

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