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Found 9 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 9


Reply to \textquoterightThe dynamics of Van Allen belts revisited\textquoteright

Mann, I.; Ozeke, L.; Morley, S.; Murphy, K.; Claudepierre, S.; Turner, D.; Baker, D.; Rae, I.; Kale, A.; Milling, D.; Boyd, A.; Spence, H.; Singer, H.; Dimitrakoudis, S.; Daglis, I.; Honary, F.;

Published by: Nature Physics      Published on: 02/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1038/nphys4351

Van Allen Probes


Explaining the dynamics of the ultra-relativistic third Van Allen radiation belt

Since the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts over 50 years ago, an explanation for their complete dynamics has remained elusive. Especially challenging is understanding the recently discovered ultra-relativistic third electron radiation belt. Current theory asserts that loss in the heart of the outer belt, essential to the formation of the third belt, must be controlled by high-frequency plasma wave\textendashparticle scattering into the atmosphere, via whistler mode chorus, plasmaspheric hiss, or electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. However, this has failed to accurately reproduce the third belt. Using a datadriven, time-dependent specification of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves we show for the first time how the third radiation belt is established as a simple, elegant consequence of storm-time extremely fast outward ULF wave transport. High-frequency wave\textendashparticle scattering loss into the atmosphere is not needed in this case. When rapid ULF wave transport coupled to a dynamic boundary is accurately specified, the sensitive dynamics controlling the enigmatic ultra-relativistic third radiation belt are naturally explained.

Mann, I.; Ozeke, L.; Murphy, K.; Claudepierre, S.; Turner, D.; Baker, D.; Rae, I.; Kale, A.; Milling, D.; Boyd, A.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Singer, H.; Dimitrakoudis, S.; Daglis, I.; Honary, F.;

Published by: Nature Physics      Published on: 06/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1038/nphys3799

Astrophysical plasmas; Magnetospheric physics; Van Allen Probes


Electron precipitation from EMIC waves: a case study from 31 May 2013

On 31 May 2013 several rising-tone electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC) waves with intervals of pulsations of diminishing periods (IPDP) were observed in the magnetic local time afternoon and evening sectors during the onset of a moderate/large geomagnetic storm. The waves were sequentially observed in Finland, Antarctica, and western Canada. Co-incident electron precipitation by a network of ground-based Antarctic Arctic Radiation-belt Dynamic Deposition VLF Atmospheric Research Konsortia (AARDDVARK) and riometer instruments, as well as the Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) electron telescopes, was also observed. At the same time POES detected 30-80 keV proton precipitation drifting westwards at locations that were consistent with the ground-based observations, indicating substorm injection. Through detailed modelling of the combination of ground and satellite observations the characteristics of the EMIC-induced electron precipitation were identified as: latitudinal width of 2-3\textdegree or ΔL=1 Re, longitudinal width ~50\textdegree or 3 hours MLT, lower cut off energy 280 keV, typical flux 1\texttimes104 el. cm-2 sr-1 s-1 >300 keV. The lower cutoff energy of the most clearly defined EMIC rising tone in this study confirms the identification of a class of EMIC-induced precipitation events with unexpectedly low energy cutoffs of <400 keV.

Clilverd, Mark; Duthie, Roger; Hardman, Rachael; Hendry, Aaron; Rodger, Craig; Raita, Tero; Engebretson, Mark; Lessard, Marc; Danskin, Donald; Milling, David;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021090

electromagnetic ion-cyclotron; electron precipitation; radio propagation; satellite


Modeling cross L shell impacts of magnetopause shadowing and ULF wave radial diffusion in the Van Allen belts

We present simulations of the outer electron radiation belt using a new ULF wave-driven radial diffusion model, including empirical representations of loss due to chorus and plasmaspheric hiss. With an outer boundary condition constrained by in situ electron flux observations, we focus on the impacts of magnetopause shadowing and outward radial diffusion in the heart of the radiation belt. Third invariant conserving solutions are combined to simulate the L shell and time dependence of the differential flux at a fixed energy. Results for the geomagnetically quiet year of 2008 demonstrate not only remarkable cross L shell impacts from magnetopause shadowing but also excellent agreement with the in situ observations even though no internal acceleration source is included in the model. Our model demonstrates powerful utility for capturing the cross-L impacts of magnetopause shadowing with significant prospects for improved space weather forecasting. The potential role of the plasmasphere in creating a third belt is also discussed.

Ozeke, Louis; Mann, Ian; Turner, Drew; Murphy, Kyle; Degeling, Alex; Rae, Jonathan; Milling, David;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 10/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL060787

magnetopause shadowing; Radiation belt; ULF wave radial diffusion

Analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients

We present analytic expressions for ULF wave-derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, as a function of L and Kp, which can easily be incorporated into global radiation belt transport models. The diffusion coefficients are derived from statistical representations of ULF wave power, electric field power mapped from ground magnetometer data, and compressional magnetic field power from in situ measurements. We show that the overall electric and magnetic diffusion coefficients are to a good approximation both independent of energy. We present example 1-D radial diffusion results from simulations driven by CRRES-observed time-dependent energy spectra at the outer boundary, under the action of radial diffusion driven by the new ULF wave radial diffusion coefficients and with empirical chorus wave loss terms (as a function of energy, Kp and L). There is excellent agreement between the differential flux produced by the 1-D, Kp-driven, radial diffusion model and CRRES observations of differential electron flux at 0.976 MeV\textemdasheven though the model does not include the effects of local internal acceleration sources. Our results highlight not only the importance of correct specification of radial diffusion coefficients for developing accurate models but also show significant promise for belt specification based on relatively simple models driven by solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed or geomagnetic indices such as Kp.

Ozeke, Louis; Mann, Ian; Murphy, Kyle; Rae, Jonathan; Milling, David;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019204

Diffusion Coefficient; Radiation belt; ULF wave

Effect of EMIC waves on relativistic and ultrarelativistic electron populations: Ground-based and Van Allen Probes observations

We study the effect of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves on the loss and pitch angle scattering of relativistic and ultrarelativistic electrons during the recovery phase of a moderate geomagnetic storm on 11 October 2012. The EMIC wave activity was observed in situ on the Van Allen Probes and conjugately on the ground across the Canadian Array for Real-time Investigations of Magnetic Activity throughout an extended 18 h interval. However, neither enhanced precipitation of >0.7 MeV electrons nor reductions in Van Allen Probe 90\textdegree pitch angle ultrarelativistic electron flux were observed. Computed radiation belt electron pitch angle diffusion rates demonstrate that rapid pitch angle diffusion is confined to low pitch angles and cannot reach 90\textdegree. For the first time, from both observational and modeling perspectives, we show evidence of EMIC waves triggering ultrarelativistic (~2\textendash8 MeV) electron loss but which is confined to pitch angles below around 45\textdegree and not affecting the core distribution.

Usanova, M.; Drozdov, A.; Orlova, K.; Mann, I.; Shprits, Y.; Robertson, M.; Turner, D.; Milling, D.; Kale, A.; Baker, D.; Thaller, S.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 03/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059024

Van Allen Probes

Spatial localization and ducting of EMIC waves: Van Allen Probes and ground-based observations

On 11 October 2012, during the recovery phase of a moderate geomagnetic storm, an extended interval (> 18 h) of continuous electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves was observed by Canadian Array for Real-time Investigations of Magnetic Activity and Solar-Terrestrial Environment Program induction coil magnetometers in North America. At around 14:15 UT, both Van Allen Probes B and A (65\textdegree magnetic longitude apart) in conjunction with the ground array observed very narrow (ΔL ~ 0.1\textendash0.4) left-hand polarized EMIC emission confined to regions of mass density gradients at the outer edge of the plasmasphere at L ~ 4. EMIC waves were seen with complex polarization patterns on the ground, in good agreement with model results from Woodroffe and Lysak (2012) and consistent with Earth\textquoterights rotation sweeping magnetometer stations across multiple polarization reversals in the fields in the Earth-ionosphere duct. The narrow L-widths explain the relative rarity of space-based EMIC occurrence, ground-based measurements providing better estimates of global EMIC wave occurrence for input into radiation belt dynamical models.

Mann, I.; Usanova, M.; Murphy, K.; Robertson, M.; Milling, D.; Kale, A.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.; Thaller, S.; Raita, T.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058581

Van Allen Probes


Discovery of the action of a geophysical synchrotron in the Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts

Although the Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts were discovered over 50 years ago, the dominant processes responsible for relativistic electron acceleration, transport and loss remain poorly understood. Here we show evidence for the action of coherent acceleration due to resonance with ultra-low frequency waves on a planetary scale. Data from the CRRES probe, and from the recently launched multi-satellite NASA Van Allen Probes mission, with supporting modeling, collectively show coherent ultra-low frequency interactions which high energy resolution data reveals are far more common than either previously thought or observed. The observed modulations and energy-dependent spatial structure indicate a mode of action analogous to a geophysical synchrotron; this new mode of response represents a significant shift in known Van Allen radiation belt dynamics and structure. These periodic collisionless betatron acceleration processes also have applications in understanding the dynamics of, and periodic electromagnetic emissions from, distant plasma-astrophysical systems.

Mann, Ian; Lee, E.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; Degeling, A.; Rae, I.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Ozeke, L.; Rankin, R.; Milling, D.; Kale, A.; Friedel, R.; Honary, F.;

Published by: Nature Communications      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3795

Van Allen Probes


Energization of relativistic electrons in the presence of ULF power and MeV microbursts: Evidence for dual ULF and VLF acceleration

We examine signatures of two types of waves that may be involved in the acceleration of energetic electrons in Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belts. We have compiled a database of ULF wave power from SAMNET and IMAGE ground magnetometer stations for 1987\textendash2001. Long-duration, comprehensive, in situ VLF/ELF chorus wave observations are not available, so we infer chorus wave activity from low-altitude SAMPEX observations of MeV electron microbursts for 1996\textendash2001 since microbursts are thought to be caused by interactions between chorus and trapped electrons. We compare the ULF and microburst observations to in situ trapped electrons observed by high-altitude satellites from 1989\textendash2001. We find that electron acceleration at low L shells is closely associated with both ULF activity and MeV microbursts and thereby probably also with chorus activity. Electron flux enhancements across the outer radiation belt are, in general, related to both ULF and VLF/ELF activity. However, we suggest that electron flux peaks observed at L \~ 4.5 are likely caused by VLF/ELF wave acceleration, while ULF activity probably produces the dominant electron acceleration at geosynchronous orbit and beyond.

O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Lorentzen, K.; Mann, I.; Meredith, N.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Looper, M.; Milling, D.; Anderson, R.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 08/2003

YEAR: 2003     DOI: 10.1029/2002JA009784

Local Acceleration due to Wave-Particle Interaction