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Found 14 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 14


Whistler on a Shelf

Abstract This paper presents results from a numerical study of the guiding of VLF whistler-mode waves along the ambient magnetic field by the shelf-like density structures observed by the NASA Van Allen Probes satellites in the equatorial plasmasphere. The shelf-duct consists of a homogeneous central part “sandwiched” between two density gradients pointing in the same direction. To the best of our knowledge, this type of whistler ducting has never been identified in observations before. Our investigation is based on simulations of the electron-MHD model, and our goal is to explain the mechanism of providing wave trapping and to reproduce the structure of the observed waves. The main result from this study is that the shelf-like, field-aligned density irregularities can indeed guide whistler-mode waves along the ambient magnetic field with little attenuation, and the parameters of the guided waves are defined by the parameters of the duct. The simulations reproduce the structure of the observed waves reasonably well. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Streltsov, Anatoly;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Whistler waves; density duct; plasmasphere; RBSP; simulations; Van Allen Probes


The Role of Hiss, Chorus, and EMIC Waves in the Modeling of the Dynamics of the Multi-MeV Radiation Belt Electrons

In this study, we performed a series of long-term and individual storm simulations with and without hiss, chorus, and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. We compared simulation results incorporating different wave modes with Van Allen Probes flux observations to illustrate how hiss and chorus waves aid EMIC waves in depleting multi-MeV electrons. We found that EMIC, hiss, and chorus waves are required to reproduce satellite measurements in our simulations. Our results indicate that hiss waves play a dominant role in scattering near-equatorial mirroring electrons, and they assist EMIC waves, which scatter only small pitch angle electrons. The best agreement between the observations and the simulations (long-term and 17 January 2013 storm) is achieved when hiss, chorus, and EMIC waves are included.

Drozdov, A; Usanova, M.; Hudson, M.; Allison, H.; Shprits, Y;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

EMIC waves; Radiation belts; Whistler waves; VERB code; Fokker-Planck diffusion equation; Van Allen Probes


Statistical occurrence and distribution of high amplitude whistler-mode waves in the outer radiation belt

We present the first statistical analysis with continuous data coverage and non-averaged amplitudes of the prevalence and distribution of high-amplitude (> 5 mV/m) whistler-mode waves in the outer radiation belt using 5 years of Van Allen Probes data. These waves are most common above L=3.5 and between MLT of 0-7 where they are present 1-4\% of the time. During high geomagnetic activity, high-amplitude whistler-mode wave occurrence rises above 30\% in some regions. During these active times the plasmasphere erodes to lower L and high-amplitude waves are observed at all L outside of it, with the highest occurrence at low L (3.5-4) in the pre-dawn sector. These results have important implications for modeling radiation belt particle interactions with chorus, as large-amplitude waves interact non-linearly with electrons. Results also may provide clues regarding the mechanisms which result in growth to large amplitudes.

Tyler, E.; Breneman, A.; Cattell, C.; Wygant, J.; Thaller, S.; Malaspina, D.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL082292

Chorus; Radiation belt; Van Allen belt; Van Allen Probes; Whistler waves


Longitudinal dependence of whistler mode electromagnetic waves in the Earth\textquoterights inner magnetosphere

We use the measurements performed by the DEMETER (2004-2010) and the Van Allen Probes (2012-2016, still operating) spacecraft to investigate the longitudinal dependence of the intensity of whistler mode waves in the Earth\textquoterights inner magnetosphere. We show that a significant longitudinal dependence is observed inside the plasmasphere on the nightside, primarily in the frequency range 400 Hz\textendash2 kHz. On the other hand, almost no longitudinal dependence is observed on the dayside. The obtained results are compared to the lightning occurrence rate provided by the OTD/LIS mission normalized by a factor accounting for the ionospheric attenuation. The agreement between the two dependencies indicates that lightning generated electromagnetic waves may be responsible for the observed effect, thus substantially affecting the overall wave intensity in the given frequency range. Finally, we show that the longitudinal dependence is most pronounced for waves with oblique wave normal angles.

ahlava, J.; emec, F.; ik, O.; a, I.; Hospodarskyy, G.; Parrot, M.; Kurth, W.; Bortnik, J.; Kletzing, C.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025284

DEMETER; Van Allen Probes; Whistler waves

Nonlinear Electrostatic Steepening of Whistler Waves: The Guiding Factors and Dynamics in Inhomogeneous Systems

Whistler mode chorus waves are particularly important in outer radiation belt dynamics due to their key role in controlling the acceleration and scattering of electrons over a very wide energy range. The efficiency of wave-particle resonant interactions is defined by whistler wave properties which have been described by the approximation of plane linear waves propagating through the cold plasma of the inner magnetosphere. However, recent observations of extremely high-amplitude whistlers suggest the importance of nonlinear wave-particle interactions for the dynamics of the outer radiation belt. Oblique chorus waves observed in the inner magnetosphere often exhibit drastically nonsinusoidal (with significant power in the higher harmonics) waveforms of the parallel electric field, presumably due to the feedback from hot resonant electrons. We have considered the nature and properties of such nonlinear whistler waves observed by the Van Allen Probes and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions define during Substorms in the inner magnetosphere, and we show that the significant enhancement of the wave electrostatic component can result from whistler wave coupling with the beam-driven electrostatic mode through the resonant interaction with hot electron beams. Being modulated by a whistler wave, the electron beam generates a driven electrostatic mode significantly enhancing the parallel electric field of the initial whistler wave. We confirm this mechanism using a self-consistent particle-in-cell simulation. The nonlinear electrostatic component manifests properties of the beam-driven electron acoustic mode and can be responsible for effective electron acceleration in the inhomogeneous magnetic field.

Agapitov, O.; Drake, J.; Vasko, I.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Wygant, J.; Reeves, G.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 03/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL076957

Electron acceleration; electron acoustic waves; induced scattering; nonlinear wave-particle interactions; Van Allen Probes; wave steepening; Whistler waves


Roles of hot electrons in generating upper-hybrid waves in the earth\textquoterights radiation belt

Electrostatic fluctuations near upper-hybrid frequency, which are sometimes accompanied by multiple-harmonic electron cyclotron frequency bands above and below the upper-hybrid frequency, are common occurrences in the Earth\textquoterights radiation belt, as revealed through the twin Van Allen Probe spacecrafts. It is customary to use the upper-hybrid emissions for estimating the background electron density, which in turn can be used to determine the plasmapause locations, but the role of hot electrons in generating such fluctuations has not been discussed in detail. The present paper carries out detailed analyses of data from the Waves instrument, which is part of the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science suite onboard the Van Allen Probes. Combined with the theoretical calculation, it is shown that the peak intensity associated with the upper-hybrid fluctuations might be predominantly determined by tenuous but hot electrons and that denser cold background electrons do not seem to contribute much to the peak intensity. This finding shows that upper-hybrid fluctuations detected during quiet time are not only useful for the determination of the background cold electron density but also contain information on the ambient hot electrons population as well.

Hwang, J.; Shin, D.; Yoon, P.; Kurth, W.; Larsen, B.; Reeves, G.; Lee, D;

Published by: Physics of Plasmas      Published on: 06/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1063/1.4984249

Hot carriers; Magnetized plasmas; Radiation belts; Singing; Van Allen Probes; Whistler waves

Analysis of self-consistent nonlinear wave-particle interactions of whistler waves in laboratory and space plasmas

Whistler mode chorus is one of the most important emissions affecting the energization of the radiation belts. Recent laboratory experiments that inject energetic electron beams into a cold plasma have revealed several spectral features in the nonlinear evolution of these instabilities that have also been observed in high-time resolution in situ wave-form data. These features include (1) a sub-element structure which consists of an amplitude modulation on time-scales slower than the bounce time, (2) closely spaced discrete frequency hopping that results in a faster apparent frequency chirp rate, (3) fast frequency changes near the sub-element boundaries, and (4) harmonic generation. In this paper, we develop a finite dimensional self-consistent Hamiltonian model for the evolution of the resonant beam of electrons. We analyze a single wave case and demonstrate that the instability occurs due to a Krein collision, which manifests as a coupling between a negative and positive energy mode. This analysis revealed that the nonlinear evolution of the spectrally stable fixed-points of the self-consistent Hamiltonian develop a sub-packet structure similar to that of space observations. We then analyze the case of two whistler waves to show that the model reproduces the nonlinear harmonic generation and leads to a hypothesis for the closely spaced frequency hopping observed in laboratory experiments and space data.

Crabtree, Chris; Ganguli, Gurudas; Tejero, Erik;

Published by: Physics of Plasmas      Published on: 03/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1063/1.4977539

Dispersion relations; Electron beams; SingingEigenvalues; Van Allen Probes; Whistler waves

Transverse eV ion heating by random electric field fluctuations in the plasmasphere

Charged particle acceleration in the Earth inner magnetosphere is believed to be mainly due to the local resonant wave-particle interaction or particle transport processes. However, the Van Allen Probes have recently provided interesting evidence of a relatively slow transverse heating of eV ions at distances about 2\textendash3 Earth radii during quiet times. Waves that are able to resonantly interact with such very cold ions are generally rare in this region of space, called the plasmasphere. Thus, non-resonant wave-particle interactions are expected to play an important role in the observed ion heating. We demonstrate that stochastic heating by random transverse electric field fluctuations of whistler (and possibly electromagnetic ion cyclotron) waves could explain this weak and slow transverse heating of H+ and O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere. The essential element of the proposed model of ion heating is the presence of trains of random whistler (hiss) wave packets, with significant amplitude modulations produced by strong wave damping, rapid wave growth, or a superposition of wave packets of different frequencies, phases, and amplitudes. Such characteristics correspond to measured characteristics of hiss waves in this region. Using test particle simulations with typical wave and plasma parameters, we demonstrate that the corresponding stochastic transverse ion heating reaches 0.07\textendash0.2 eV/h for protons and 0.007\textendash0.015 eV/h for O+ ions. This global temperature increase of the Maxwellian ion population from an initial Ti\~0.3Ti\~0.3 eV could potentially explain the observations.

Artemyev, A.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O.; Blum, L.;

Published by: Physics of Plasmas      Published on: 02/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1063/1.4976713

electric fields; Electrostatic Waves; protons; Van Allen Probes; Wave power; Whistler waves


Oblique Whistler-Mode Waves in the Earth\textquoterights Inner Magnetosphere: Energy Distribution, Origins, and Role in Radiation Belt Dynamics

In this paper we review recent spacecraft observations of oblique whistler-mode waves in the Earth\textquoterights inner magnetosphere as well as the various consequences of the presence of such waves for electron scattering and acceleration. In particular, we survey the statistics of occurrences and intensity of oblique chorus waves in the region of the outer radiation belt, comprised between the plasmapause and geostationary orbit, and discuss how their actual distribution may be explained by a combination of linear and non-linear generation, propagation, and damping processes. We further examine how such oblique wave populations can be included into both quasi-linear diffusion models and fully nonlinear models of wave-particle interaction. On this basis, we demonstrate that varying amounts of oblique waves can significantly change the rates of particle scattering, acceleration, and precipitation into the atmosphere during quiet times as well as in the course of a storm. Finally, we discuss possible generation mechanisms for such oblique waves in the radiation belts. We demonstrate that oblique whistler-mode chorus waves can be considered as an important ingredient of the radiation belt system and can play a key role in many aspects of wave-particle resonant interactions.

Artemyev, Anton; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mourenas, Didier; Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Shastun, Vitalii; Mozer, Forrest;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 04/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-016-0252-5

Earth radiation belts; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction; Whistler waves


Laboratory studies of nonlinear whistler wave processes in the Van Allen radiation belts

Important nonlinear wave-wave and wave-particle interactions that occur in the Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts are investigated in a laboratory experiment. Predominantly electrostatic waves in the whistler branch are launched that propagate near the resonance cone with measured wave normal angle greater than 85\textordmasculine. When the pump amplitude exceeds a threshold ~5 x10^6 times the back- ground magnetic field, wave power at frequencies below the pump frequency is observed at wave normal angles (~55\textordmasculine). The scattered wave has a perpendicular wavelength that is nearly an order of magnitude larger than that of the pump wave. Occasionally, the parametric decay of a lower hybrid wave into a magnetosonic wave and a whistler wave is simultaneously observed with a

Tejero, E.; Crabtree, C.; Blackwell, D.; Amatucci, W.; Mithaiwala, M.; Ganguli, G.; Rudakov, L.;

Published by: Physics of Plasmas      Published on: 08/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1063/1.4928944

Electrostatic Waves; magnetic fields; Nonlinear scattering; Plasma electromagnetic waves; Whistler waves

Stability of relativistic electron trapping by strong whistler or electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

In the present paper, we investigate the trapping of relativistic electrons by intense whistler-mode waves or electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts. We consider the non-resonant impact of additional, lower amplitude magnetic field fluctuations on the stability of electron trapping. We show that such additional non-resonant fluctuations can break the adiabatic invariant corresponding to trapped electron oscillations in the effective wave potential. This destruction results in a diffusive escape of electrons from the trapped regime of motion and thus can lead to a significant reduction of the efficiency of electron acceleration. We demonstrate that when energetic electrons are trapped by intense parallel or very oblique whistler-mode waves, non-resonant magnetic field fluctuations in the whistler-mode frequency range with moderate amplitudes around 3-15 pT (much less intense than the primary waves) can totally disrupt the trapped motion. However, the trapping of relativistic electrons by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves is noticeably more stable. We also discuss how the proposed approach can be used to estimate the effects of wave amplitude modulations on the motion of trapped particles.

Artemyev, A.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O.; Vainchtein, D.; Mozer, F.; Krasnoselskikh, V.;

Published by: Physics of Plasmas      Published on: 08/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1063/1.4927774

Cyclotron resonances; magnetic fields; Particle fluctuations; Plasma electromagnetic waves; Whistler waves

One- and two-dimensional hybrid simulations of whistler mode waves in a dipole field

We simulate whistler mode waves using a hybrid code. There are four species in the simulations, hot electrons initialized with a bi-Maxwellian distribution with temperature in the direction perpendicular to background magnetic field greater than that in the parallel direction, warm isotropic electrons, cold inertialess fluid electrons, and protons as an immobile background. The density of the hot population is a small fraction of the total plasma density. Comparison between the dispersion relation of our model and other dispersion relations shows that our model is more accurate for lower frequency whistlers than for higher frequency whistlers. Simulations in 2-D Cartesian coordinates agree very well with those using a full dynamics code. In the 1-D simulations along the dipole magnetic field, the predicted frequency and wave number are observed. Rising tones are observed in the one-fourteenth scale simulations that have larger than realistic magnetic field spatial inhomogeneity. However, in the full-scale 1-D simulation in a dipole field, the waves are more broadband and do not exhibit rising tones. In the 2-D simulations in a meridional plane, the waves are generated with propagation approximately parallel to the background magnetic field. However, the wavefronts become oblique as they propagate to higher latitudes. Simulations with different plasma density profiles across L shell are performed to study the effect of the background density on whistler propagation.

Wu, S.; Denton, R.; Liu, K.; Hudson, M.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020736

hybrid simulation; particle-in-cell simulation; plasma waves; Whistler waves


Relativistic electron precipitation events driven by electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves

We adopt a canonical approach to describe the stochastic motion of relativistic belt electrons and their scattering into the loss cone by nonlinear EMIC waves. The estimated rate of scattering is sufficient to account for the rate and intensity of bursty electron precipitation. This interaction is shown to result in particle scattering into the loss cone, forming \~10 s microbursts of precipitating electrons. These dynamics can account for the statistical correlations between processes of energization, pitch angle scattering, and relativistic electron precipitation events, that are manifested on large temporal scales of the order of the diffusion time \~tens of minutes.

Khazanov, G.; Sibeck, D.; Tel\textquoterightnikhin, A.; Kronberg, T.;

Published by: Physics of Plasmas      Published on: 08/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1063/1.4892185

Diffusion; Electron scattering; Nonlinear waves; wave-particle interactions; Whistler waves


Weak turbulence in the magnetosphere: Formation of whistler wave cavity by nonlinear scattering

We consider the weak turbulence of whistler waves in the in low-β inner magnetosphere of the earth. Whistler waves, originating in the ionosphere, propagate radially outward and can trigger nonlinear induced scattering by thermal electrons provided the wave energy density is large enough. Nonlinear scattering can substantially change the direction of the wave vector of whistler waves and hence the direction of energy flux with only a small change in the frequency. A portion of whistler waves return to the ionosphere with a smaller perpendicular wave vector resulting in diminished linear damping and enhanced ability to pitch-angle scatter trapped electrons. In addition, a portion of the scatteredwave packets can be reflected near the ionosphere back into the magnetosphere. Through multiple nonlinear scatterings and ionospheric reflections a long-lived wavecavity containing turbulent whistler waves can be formed with the appropriate properties to efficiently pitch-angle scatter trapped electrons. The primary consequence on the earth\textquoterights radiation belts is to reduce the lifetime of the trapped electron population.

Crabtree, C.; Rudakov, L.; Ganguli, G.; Mithaiwala, M.; Galinsky, V.; Shevchenko, V.;

Published by: Physics of Plasmas      Published on: 01/2012

YEAR: 2012     DOI: 10.1063/1.3692092

Whistler waves; Magnetosphere