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Found 11 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 11


The Response of the Energy Content of the Outer Electron Radiation Belt to Geomagnetic Storms

Using the data from the Van Allen Probe-A spacecraft, the variability of the total outer radiation belt (2.5300 keV) is investigated for the first time during 51 isolated storms spanning from October 2012 to May 2017. The statistical results show that the TRBEEC exhibits no-change in 20\% of the storms and gets enhanced during 80\% of them. The sub-relativistic electrons (300-500 keV) and relativistic electrons (0.5-2.0 MeV) equally contribute to the TRBEEC during the main phases, while in the recovery phases, the relativistic electrons contribute up to 80\% of the TRBEEC. The results of the superposed epoch analysis of the solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices indicate that the TRBEEC enhancement events preferably occur during the prolonged southward IMF period when the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling is more efficient. Meanwhile, the high AE index with intense injections of several hundreds of keV \textquotedblleftseed\textquotedblright electrons also favors the increase of the TRBEEC. Case study shows that there is a localized growing PSD (phase space density) peak around L*=4.3 and the chorus wave energy and the gain of TRBEEC are on the same order of magnitude, which may suggest that the enhancement of the TRBEEC is the consequence of the chorus acceleration. Understanding the energy budget of the outer zone electrons can provide more insight into the energy transfer from plasma waves to the energetic electron population, especially for revealing the underlying physics of the energization of outer radiation belt electrons via chorus wave acceleration.

Xiong, Ying; Xie, Lun; Chen, Lunjin; Ni, Binbin; Fu, Suiyan; Pu, Zuyin;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 09/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025475

Chorus wave; energetic particles; energy content; magnetic storm; outer radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

Radial Transport of Higher-Energy Oxygen Ions Into the Deep Inner Magnetosphere Observed by Van Allen Probes

The transport mechanism of the ring current ions differs among ion energies. Lower-energy (≲150 keV) ions are well known to be transported convectively. Higher-energy (≳150 keV) protons are reported to be transported diffusively, while there are few reports about transport of higher-energy oxygen ions. We report the radial transport of higher-energy oxygen ions into the deep inner magnetosphere during the late main phase of the magnetic storm on 23\textendash25 April 2013 observed by the Van Allen Probes spacecraft. An enhancement of 1\textendash100 mHz magnetic fluctuations is simultaneously observed. Observations of 3 and 30 mHz geomagnetic pulsations indicate the azimuthal mode number is <=10. The fluctuations can resonate with the drift and bounce motions of the oxygen ions. The results suggest that the combination of the drift and drift-bounce resonances is responsible for the radial transport of higher-energy oxygen ions.

Mitani, K.; Seki, K.; Keika, K.; Gkioulidou, M.; Lanzerotti, L.; Mitchell, D.; Kletzing, C.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 05/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077500

magnetic storm; oxygen ion; ring current; Van Allen Probes


Global observations of magnetospheric high- m poloidal waves during the 22 June 2015 magnetic storm

We report global observations of high-m poloidal waves during the recovery phase of the 22 June 2015 magnetic storm from a constellation of widely spaced satellites of five missions including Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS), Van Allen Probes, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorm (THEMIS), Cluster, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). The combined observations demonstrate the global spatial extent of storm time poloidal waves. MMS observations confirm high azimuthal wave numbers (m ~ 100). Mode identification indicates the waves are associated with the second harmonic of field line resonances. The wave frequencies exhibit a decreasing trend as L increases, distinguishing them from the single-frequency global poloidal modes normally observed during quiet times. Detailed examination of the instantaneous frequency reveals discrete spatial structures with step-like frequency changes along L. Each discrete L shell has a steady wave frequency and spans about 1 RE, suggesting that there exist a discrete number of drift-bounce resonance regions across L shells during storm times.

Le, G.; Chi, P.; Strangeway, R.; Russell, C.; Slavin, J.; Takahashi, K.; Singer, H.; Anderson, B.; Bromund, K.; Fischer, D.; Kepko, E.; Magnes, W.; Nakamura, R.; Plaschke, F.; Torbert, R.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 04/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL073048

field line resonances; high-m poloidal waves; magnetic storm; magnetospheric multiscale mission; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes


Statistical distribution of EMIC wave spectra: Observations from Van Allen Probes

It has been known that electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can precipitate ultrarelativistic electrons through cyclotron resonant scattering. However, the overall effectiveness of this mechanism has yet to be quantified, because it is difficult to obtain the global distribution of EMIC waves that usually exhibit limited spatial presence. We construct a statistical distribution of EMIC wave frequency spectra and their intensities based on Van Allen Probes measurements from September 2012 to December 2015. Our results show that as the ratio of plasma frequency over electron gyrofrequency increases, EMIC wave power becomes progressively dominated by the helium band. There is a pronounced dawn-dusk asymmetry in the wave amplitude and the frequency spectrum. The frequency spectrum does not follow the commonly used single-peak Gaussian function. Incorporating these realistic EMIC wave frequency spectra into radiation belt models is expected to improve the quantification of EMIC wave scattering effects in ultrarelativistic electron dynamics.

Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bortnik, J.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 12/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071158

EMIC waves; magnetic storm; outer radiation belt; relativistic electron loss; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Physical mechanism causing rapid changes in ultrarelativistic electron pitch angle distributions right after a shock arrival: Evaluation of an electron dropout event

Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain relativistic electron flux depletions (dropouts) in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt during storm times: adiabatic expansion of electron drift shells due to a decrease in magnetic field strength, magnetopause shadowing and subsequent outward radial diffusion, and precipitation into the atmosphere (driven by EMIC wave scattering). Which mechanism predominates in causing electron dropouts commonly observed in the outer radiation belt is still debatable. In the present study, we evaluate the physical mechanism that may be primarily responsible for causing the sudden change in relativistic electron pitch angle distributions during a dropout event observed by Van Allen Probes during the main phase of the 27 February 2014 storm. During this event, the phase space density of ultrarelativistic (>1 MeV) electrons was depleted by more than 1 order of magnitude over the entire radial extent of the outer radiation belt (3 < L* < 5) in less than 6 h after the passage of an interplanetary shock. We model the electron pitch angle distribution under a compressed magnetic field topology based on actual solar wind conditions. Although these ultrarelativistic electrons exhibit highly anisotropic (peaked in 90\textdegree), energy-dependent pitch angle distributions, which appear to be associated with the typical EMIC wave scattering, comparison of the modeled electron distribution to electron measurements indicates that drift shell splitting is responsible for this rapid change in electron pitch angle distributions. This further indicates that magnetopause loss is the predominant cause of the electron dropout right after the shock arrival.

Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Angelopoulos, V.; Ma, Q.; Li, J.; Bortnik, J.; Nishimura, Y.; Chen, L.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 09/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022517

Drift shell splitting; dropouts; magnetic storm; magnetopause shadowing; outer radiation belt; relativistic electron loss; Van Allen Probes

Dipolarizing flux bundles in the cis-geosynchronous magnetosphere: relationship between electric fields and energetic particle injections

Dipolarizing flux bundles (DFBs) are small flux tubes (typically < 3 RE in XGSM and YGSM) in the nightside magnetosphere that have magnetic field more dipolar than the background. Although DFBs are known to accelerate particles, creating energetic particle injections outside geosynchronous orbit (trans-GEO), the nature of the acceleration mechanism and the importance of DFBs in generating injections inside geosynchronous orbit (cis-GEO) are unclear. Our statistical study of cis-GEO DFBs using data from the Van Allen Probes reveals that just like trans-GEO DFBs, cis-GEO DFBs occur most often in the pre-midnight sector, but their occurrence rate is ~1/3 that of trans-GEO DFBs. Half the cis-GEO DFBs are accompanied by an energetic particle injection and have an electric field three times stronger than that of the injectionless half. All DFB injections are dispersionless within the temporal resolution considered (11 seconds). Our findings suggest that these injections are ushered or produced locally by the DFB, and the DFB\textquoterights strong electric field is an important aspect of the injection generation mechanism.

Liu, Jiang; Angelopoulos, V.; Zhang, Xiao-Jia; Turner, D.; Gabrielse, C.; Runov, A.; Li, Jinxing; Funsten, H.; Spence, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021691

dipolarization front; dipolarizing flux bundle; energetic particle injection; geosynchronous orbit; magnetic storm; Particle acceleration


\textquotedblleftTrunk-like\textquotedblright heavy ion structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

Dynamic ion spectral features in the inner magnetosphere are the observational signatures of ion acceleration, transport, and loss in the global magnetosphere. We report \textquotedbllefttrunk-like\textquotedblright ion structures observed by the Van Allen Probes on 2 November 2012. This new type of ion structure looks like an elephant\textquoterights trunk on an energy-time spectrogram, with the energy of the peak flux decreasing Earthward. The trunks are present in He+ and O+ ions but not in H+. During the event, ion energies in the He+ trunk, located at L = 3.6\textendash2.6, MLT = 9.1\textendash10.5, and MLAT = -2.4\textendash0.09\textdegree, vary monotonically from 3.5 to 0.04 keV. The values at the two end points of the O+ trunk are: energy = 4.5\textendash0.7 keV, L = 3.6\textendash2.5, MLT = 9.1\textendash10.7, and MLAT = -2.4\textendash0.4\textdegree. Results from backward ion drift path tracings indicate that the trunks are likely due to 1) a gap in the nightside ion source or 2) greatly enhanced impulsive electric fields associated with elevated geomagnetic activity. Different ion loss lifetimes cause the trunks to differ among ion species.

Zhang, J.-C.; Kistler, L.; Spence, H.; Wolf, R.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.; Larsen, B.; Niehof, J.; MacDonald, E.; Friedel, R.; Ferradas, C.; Luo, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021822

inner magnetosphere; ion injection; Ion structure; magnetic cloud; magnetic storm; Van Allen Probes

Pileup accident hypothesis of magnetic storm on 17 March 2015

We propose a \textquotedblleftpileup accident\textquotedblright hypothesis, based on the solar wind data analysis and magnetohydrodynamics modeling, to explain unexpectedly geoeffective solar wind structure which caused the largest magnetic storm so far during the solar cycle 24 on 17 March 2015: First, a fast coronal mass ejection with strong southward magnetic fields both in the sheath and in the ejecta was followed by a high-speed stream from a nearby coronal hole. This combination resulted in less adiabatic expansion than usual to keep the high speed, strong magnetic field, and high density within the coronal mass ejection. Second, preceding slow and high-density solar wind was piled up ahead of the coronal mass ejection just before the arrival at the Earth to further enhance its magnetic field and density. Finally, the enhanced solar wind speed, magnetic field, and density worked all together to drive the major magnetic storm.

Kataoka, Ryuho; Shiota, Daikou; Kilpua, Emilia; Keika, Kunihiro;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 07/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064816

coronal hole; coronal mass ejection; corotating interaction region; magnetic storm

Formation of the oxygen torus in the inner magnetosphere: Van Allen Probes observations

We study the formation process of an oxygen torus during the 12\textendash15 November 2012 magnetic storm, using the magnetic field and plasma wave data obtained by Van Allen Probes. We estimate the local plasma mass density (ρL) and the local electron number density (neL) from the resonant frequencies of standing Alfv\ en waves and the upper hybrid resonance band. The average ion mass (M) can be calculated by M \~ ρL/neL under the assumption of quasi-neutrality of plasma. During the storm recovery phase, both Probe A and Probe B observe the oxygen torus at L = 3.0\textendash4.0 and L = 3.7\textendash4.5, respectively, on the morning side. The oxygen torus has M = 4.5\textendash8 amu and extends around the plasmapause that is identified at L\~3.2\textendash3.9. We find that during the initial phase, M is 4\textendash7 amu throughout the plasma trough and remains at \~1 amu in the plasmasphere, implying that ionospheric O+ ions are supplied into the inner magnetosphere already in the initial phase of the magnetic storm. Numerical calculation under a decrease of the convection electric field reveals that some of thermal O+ ions distributed throughout the plasma trough are trapped within the expanded plasmasphere, whereas some of them drift around the plasmapause on the dawnside. This creates the oxygen torus spreading near the plasmapause, which is consistent with the Van Allen Probes observations. We conclude that the oxygen torus identified in this study favors the formation scenario of supplying O+ in the inner magnetosphere during the initial phase and subsequent drift during the recovery phase.

e, Nos\; Oimatsu, S.; Keika, K.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; De Pascuale, S.; Smith, C.; MacDowall, R.; Nakano, S.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Larsen, B.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020593

inner magnetosphere; magnetic storm; oxygen torus; plasmasphere; ring current; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes

Empirical modeling of the storm-time innermost magnetosphere using Van Allen Probes and THEMIS data: Eastward and banana currents

The structure of storm-time currents in the inner magnetosphere, including its innermost region inside 4RE, is studied for the first time using a modification of the empirical geomagnetic field model TS07D and new data from Van Allen Probes and THEMIS missions. It is shown that the model, which uses basis-function expansions instead of ad hoc current modules to approximate the magnetic field, consistently improves its resolution and magnetic field reconstruction with the increase of the number of basis functions and resolves the spatial structure and evolution of the innermost eastward current. This includes a connection between the westward ring current flowing largely at inline image and the eastward ring current concentrated at inline image resulting in a vortex current pattern. A similar pattern coined \textquoteleftbanana current\textquoteright was previously inferred from the pressure distributions based on the energetic neutral atom imaging and first-principles ring current simulations. The morphology of the equatorial currents is dependent on storm phase. During the main phase, it is complex, with several asymmetries forming \textquoterightbanana currents\textquoteright. Near Sym-H minimum, the \textquoterightbanana current\textquoteright is strongest, is localized in the evening-midnight sector, and is more structured compared to the main phase. It then weakens during the recovery phase resulting in the equatorial currents to become mostly azimuthally symmetric.

Stephens, G.; Sitnov, M.; Ukhorskiy, A; Roelof, E.; Tsyganenko, N.; Le, G.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021700

eastward current; empirical geomagnetic field; magnetic storm; ring current; Van Allen Probes


Storm-induced energization of radiation belt electrons: Effect of wave obliquity

New Cluster statistics allow us to determine for the first time the variations of both the obliquity and intensity of lower-band chorus waves as functions of latitude and geomagnetic activity near L\~5. The portion of wave power in very oblique waves decreases during highly disturbed periods, consistent with increased Landau damping by inward-penetrating suprathermal electrons. Simple analytical considerations as well as full numerical calculations of quasi-linear diffusion rates demonstrate that early-time electron acceleration occurs in a regime of loss-limited energization. In this regime, the average wave obliquity plays a critical role in mitigating lifetime reduction as wave intensity increases with geomagnetic activity, suggesting that much larger energization levels should be reached during the early recovery phase of storms than during quiet time or moderate disturbances, the latter corresponding to stronger losses. These new effects should be included in realistic radiation belt simulations.

Artemyev, A.; Agapitov, O.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Zelenyi, L.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/grl.50837

magnetic storm; Radiation belts; wave-particle interactions