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Found 27 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 27


Observational evidence of the excitation of magnetosonic waves by an He ion ring distribution

Abstract We report plasma wave observations of equatorial magnetosonic waves at integer harmonics of the local gyrofrequency of doubly-ionized helium (He). The waves were observed by Van Allen Probe A on 08 Feb 2014 when the spacecraft was in the afternoon magnetic local time sector near inside of the plasmasphere. Analysis of the complementary in-situ energetic ion measurements (1-300 keV) reveals the presence of a helium ion ring distribution centered near 30 keV. Theoretical linear growth rate calculations suggest that the local plasma and field conditions can support the excitation of the magnetosonic waves from the unstable ring distribution. This represents the first report of the generation of magnetosonic equatorial noise via a ring distribution in energetic He ions in the near-Earth space plasma environment.

Claudepierre, S.; Liu, X.; Chen, L.; Takahashi, K.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

magnetosonic waves; ion Bernstein waves; ring distribution; alpha particles; Plasma instability; ring current; Van Allen Probes

Statistics of Magnetosonic Waves in the Slot Region Observed by Van Allen Probes

Abstract We perform a statistical analysis of magnetosonic waves in the slot region based on Van Allen Probes observations from September 2012 to February 2018. Our results demonstrate that the wave occurrence rate increases with enhanced geomagnetic activity and decreasing magnetic latitude, with the presence of strongest slot region magnetosonic waves near the geomagnetic equator within the 08-20 MLT sector. Power spectral densities of slot region magnetosonic waves also intensify during geomagnetically active times, with the occurrence of the major wave power (>∼10-5nT2/Hz) below ∼25fcp (where fcp is the proton gyrofrequency) and the peak wave intensity (∼10-3nT2/Hz) below ∼5fcp at L>∼2.6. A remarkable gap in the magnetosonic wave frequency spectrum is also revealed at < ∼15fcp during weak substorm activities (AE 300nT).

Yan, Ling; Cao, Xing; Hua, Man; Ni, Binbin; Zhang, Yuannong;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 06/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

magnetosonic waves; Slot region; Statistical distribution; Van Allen Probes

A dynamical model of equatorial magnetosonic waves in the inner magnetosphere: A machine learning approach

Abstract Equatorial magnetosonic waves, together with chorus and plasmaspheric hiss, play key roles in the dynamics of energetic electron fluxes in the magnetosphere. Numerical models, developed following a first principles approach, that are used to study the evolution of high energy electron fluxes are mainly based on quasilinear diffusion. The application of such numerical codes requires statistical models for the distribution of key magnetospheric wave modes to estimate the appropriate diffusion coefficients. These waves are generally statistically modelled as a function of spatial location and geomagnetic indices (e.g. AE, Kp, or Dst). This study presents a novel dynamic spatiotemporal model for equatorial magnetosonic (EMS) wave amplitude, developed using the Nonlinear AutoRegressive Moving Average eXogenous (NARMAX) machine learning approach. The EMS wave amplitude, measured by the Van Allen Probes, are modelled using the time lags of the solar wind and geomagnetic indices as inputs as well as the location at which the measurement is made. The resulting model performance is assessed on a separate Van Allen Probes dataset, where the prediction efficiency was found to be 34.0\% and the correlation coefficient was 56.9\%. With more training and validation data the performance metrics could potentially be improved, however, it is also possible that the EMS wave distribution is affected by stochastic factors and the performance metrics obtained for this model are close to the potential maximum.

Boynton, R.; Walker, S.; Aryan, H.; Hobara, Y.; Balikhin, M.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

magnetosonic waves; Machine learning; NARMAX; Van Allen Probes


Ionospheric Signatures of Ring Current Ions Scattered by Magnetosonic Waves

In this letter, we present unique conjugated satellite observations of ionospheric signatures of ring current (RC) ions scattered by fast magnetosonic (MS) waves. In the plasmasphere, the Van Allen Probe in situ observed MS waves. At ionospheric altitudes, the NOAA 16 satellite at the footprint of Van Allen Probe simultaneously observed obvious enhancements of mirroring RC ions, but no obvious variations of precipitating RC ions at subauroral latitudes. Theoretical calculations of pitch angle diffusion coefficients for RC ions confirm that observed MS waves can lead to flux enhancements only for mirroring but not for precipitating RC ions, which is in agreement with the observations of NOAA 16. Our result provides a direct link between in situ inner magnetospheric observations of MS waves and conjugated ionospheric observations of flux enhancements for mirroring RC ions caused by MS waves so as to reveal the ionospheric signature of RC ions scattered by MS waves.

Yuan, Zhigang; Yao, Fei; Yu, Xiongdong; Ouyang, Zhihai; Huang, Shiyong;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

magnetosonic waves; mirroring ions; pitch angle scatter; precipitating ions; Van Allen Probes; Ring current ions

The Modulation of Plasma and Waves by Background Electron Density Irregularities in the Inner Magnetosphere

The background cold electron density plays an important role in plasma and wave dynamics. Here, we investigate an event with clear modulation of the particle fluxes and wave intensities by background electron density irregularities based on Van Allen Probes observations. The energies at the peak fluxes of protons and Helium ions of 100 eV to several keV are well correlated with the total electron density variation. Intense electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) and magnetosonic (MS) waves are simultaneously observed in the high-density regions and disappear in low-density regions. Based on the linear theory of wave growth, the EMIC waves are generated by the ~10 keV protons, while most MS waves are generated by the positive gradient of proton phase space density at several hundred eV in the high-density regions. Our results indicate the importance of background plasma density structures in generation of plasma waves by unstable ion distributions.

Yue, Chao; Ma, Qianli; Jun, Chae-Woo; Bortnik, Jacob; Zong, Qiugang; Zhou, Xuzhi; Jang, Eunjin; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan; Wygant, John;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 07/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

electron density irregularities; electromagnetic ion cyclotron; magnetosonic waves; suprathermal particles; Wave-particle interaction; wave growth rate; Van Allen Probes


Global Survey and Empirical Model of Fast Magnetosonic Waves Over Their Full Frequency Range in Earth\textquoterights Inner Magnetosphere

We investigate the global distribution and provide empirical models of fast magnetosonic waves using the combined observations by the magnetometer and waveform receiver on board Van Allen Probes. The magnetometer measurements of magnetosonic waves indicate a significant wave power within the frequency range from the helium gyrofrequency to 20 Hz at L >= 4 in the afternoon sector, both inside and outside the plasmapause. The waveform receiver measurements indicate a significant wave power from 20 Hz to the lower hybrid resonance frequency at L <= 5.5 near the dayside outside the plasmapause or in the afternoon sector inside the plasmapause. The sum of the wave powers from the two instruments provides the wave power distribution over the complete frequency range. The most significant root-mean-square wave amplitude of magnetosonic waves is typically 100\textendash200 pT inside or outside the plasmapause with a magnetic local time coverage of 30\textendash50\% during geomagnetically active times when AE* > 500 nT. The magnetosonic wave frequency increases with decreasing L shell following the trend of the proton gyrofrequency outside the plasmapause, indicating a close relation with the local wave generation. Inside the plasmapause, the dependence of wave frequency on L shell is weaker, and the wave frequency is more stable across L shells, indicating the wave propagation effects from the source located at higher L shells. We have performed polynomial fits of the global magnetosonic wave distribution and wave frequency spectra, which are useful in future radiation belt simulations.

Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Bortnik, J.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027407

Empirical Fitting; Global Survey; magnetosonic waves; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes observation

Effect of Low-Harmonic Magnetosonic Waves on the Radiation Belt Electrons Inside the Plasmasphere

In this paper, we presented two observational cases and simulations to indicate the relationship between the formation of butterfly-like electron pitch angle distributions and the emission of low-harmonic (LH) fast magnetosonic (MS) waves inside the high-density plasmasphere. In the wave emission region, the pitch angle of relativistic (>1 MeV) electrons becomes obvious butterfly-like distributions for both events (near-equatorially mirroring electrons are transported to lower pitch angles). Unlike relativistic (>1 MeV) electrons, energetic electrons (<1 MeV) change slightly, except that relatively low-energy electrons (<~150 keV) show butterfly-like distributions in the 21 August 2013 event. In theory, the LH MS waves can affect different-energy electrons through the bounce resonance, Landau resonance, and transit time scattering. By performing the Fokker-Planck diffusion simulations, we demonstrate that the bounce resonance with the LH MS waves mainly leads to the butterfly pitch angle distribution of MeV electrons, whereas the Landau resonance and transit time scattering mainly affect energetic electrons in the high-density region.

Yu, J.; Li, L; Cui, J.; Cao, J.; Wang, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026328

bounce resonance; Electron acceleration; Landau resonance; magnetosonic waves; transit-time scattering; Van Allen Probes

Modulation of Locally Generated Equatorial Noise by ULF Wave

In this paper we report a rare and fortunate event of fast magnetosonic (MS, also called equatorial noise) waves modulated by compressional ultralow frequency (ULF) waves measured by Van Allen Probes. The characteristics of MS waves, ULF waves, proton distribution, and their potential correlations are analyzed. The results show that ULF waves can modulate the energetic ring proton distribution and in turn modulate the MS generation. Furthermore, the variation of MS intensities is attributed to not only ULF wave activities but also the variation of background parameters, for example, number density. The results confirm the opinion that MS waves are generated by proton ring distribution and propose a new modulation phenomenon.

Zhu, Hui; Chen, Lunjin; Liu, Xu; Shprits, Yuri;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026199

linear growth rate; magnetosonic waves; Radiation belts; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes


Combined Scattering of Outer Radiation Belt Electrons by Simultaneously Occurring Chorus, Exohiss, and Magnetosonic Waves

We report a typical event that fast magnetosonic (MS) waves, exohiss, and two-band chorus waves occurred simultaneously on the dayside observed by Van Allen Probes on 25 December 2013. By combining calculations of electron diffusion coefficients and 2-D Fokker-Planck diffusion simulations, we quantitatively analyze the combined scattering effect of multiple waves to demonstrate that the net impact of combined scattering does not simply depend on the wave intensity dominance of various plasma waves. Although the observed MS waves are most intense, the electron butterfly distribution is inhibited by exohiss and chorus, and electrons are considerably accelerated by combined scattering of MS and chorus waves. The simulated electron pitch angle distributions exhibit the variation trend consistent with the observations. Our results strongly suggest that competition and cooperation between resonant interactions with concurrently occurring magnetospheric waves need to be carefully treated in modeling and comprehending the radiation belt electron dynamics.

Hua, Man; Ni, Binbin; Fu, Song; Gu, Xudong; Xiang, Zheng; Cao, Xing; Zhang, Wenxun; He, Ying; Huang, He; Lou, Yuequn; Zhang, Yang;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 09/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL079533

Combined scattering effect; diffusion simulations; Exohiss; magnetosonic waves; resonant wave-particle interactions; two-band chorus waves; Van Allen Probes

Cold Ion Heating by Magnetosonic Waves in a Density Cavity of the Plasmasphere

Fast magnetosonic (MS) waves play an important role in the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere. Theoretical prediction and simulation have demonstrated that MS waves can heat cold ions. However, direct observational evidence of cold ion heating by MS waves has so far remained elusive. In this paper, we show a typical event of cold ion heating by magnetosonic waves in a density cavity of the plasmasphere with observations of the Van Allen Probe mission on 22 August 2013. During enhancements of the MS wave intensity in the density cavity, the fluxes of trapped H+ and He+ ions with energies of 10\textendash100 eV were observed to increase, implying that cold plasmaspheric ions were heated through high-order resonances with the MS waves. Based on simultaneous observations of ring current protons, we have calculated local linear growth rates, which demonstrate that magnetosonic waves can be locally generated in the density cavity. Our results provide a direct observational proof of the energy coupling process between the ring current and plasmasphere; that is, through exciting MS waves, the free energy stored in the ring current protons with ring distributions is released. In the density cavity of the plasmasphere, both cold H+ and He+ ions are heated by MS waves. As a result, the energy of the ring current can be transferred into the plasmasphere

Yuan, Zhigang; Yu, Xiongdong; Huang, Shiyong; Qiao, Zheng; Yao, Fei; Funsten, Herbert;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024919

cold ion heating; Density cavities; local linear growth rates; magnetosonic waves; Ring current ions; Van Allen Probes; \textquoteleftring\textquoteright distributions

The Effect of Hot Protons on Magnetosonic Waves Inside and Outside the Plasmapause: New Observations and Theoretic Results

Based on the wave and proton observations by Van Allen Probes A and B, we examined the effects of hot protons (0.01\textendash50 keV) on fast magnetosonic (MS) waves inside and outside the Earth\textquoterights plasmasphere. In the low-density plasma trough outside the plasmapause, the gyroresonance interactions between hot protons and MS waves not only cause the MS wave growth at some frequencies but also lead to the damping of MS waves at other frequencies, which depends on the proton phase space density gradient and the ambient plasma density. The gyroresonance of the observed hot protons cannot excite MS waves near the lower hybrid resonance frequency and even causes the MS wave damping. Thus, the frequencies of the observed MS waves outside the plasmapause are usually lower than the lower hybrid resonance frequency. In the high-density plasmasphere, the observed hot protons merely lead to the weak gyrodamping of MS waves. The persistent existence of lower band MS waves indicates that the weak gyrodamping effect of hot protons on MS waves is ignorable in the high-density plasmasphere.

Liu, Bin; Li, Liuyuan; Yu, Jiang; Cao, Jinbin;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024676

damping of magnetosonic waves; growth of magnetosonic waves; magnetosonic waves; magnetospheric hot protons; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions

Prompt Disappearance and Emergence of Radiation Belt Magnetosonic Waves Induced by Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Variations

Magnetosonic waves are highly oblique whistler mode emissions transferring energy from the ring current protons to the radiation belt electrons in the inner magnetosphere. Here we present the first report of prompt disappearance and emergence of magnetosonic waves induced by the solar wind dynamic pressure variations. The solar wind dynamic pressure reduction caused the magnetosphere expansion, adiabatically decelerated the ring current protons for the Bernstein mode instability, and produced the prompt disappearance of magnetosonic waves. On the contrary, because of the adiabatic acceleration of the ring current protons by the solar wind dynamic pressure enhancement, magnetosonic waves emerged suddenly. In the absence of impulsive injections of hot protons, magnetosonic waves were observable even only during the time period with the enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure. Our results demonstrate that the solar wind dynamic pressure is an essential parameter for modeling of magnetosonic waves and their effect on the radiation belt electrons.

Liu, Nigang; Su, Zhenpeng; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 01/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL076382

magnetosonic waves; Radiation belt; ring current; solar wind dynamic pressure; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction


Direct observation of generation and propagation of magnetosonic waves following substorm injection

Magnetosonic whistler mode waves play an important role in the radiation belt electron dynamics. Previous theory has suggested that these waves are excited by the ring distributions of hot protons and can propagate radially and azimuthally over a broad spatial range. However, because of the challenging requirements on satellite locations and data-processing techniques, this theory was difficult to validate directly. Here we present some experimental tests of the theory on the basis of Van Allen Probes observations of magnetosonic waves following substorm injections. At higher L-shells with significant substorm injections, the discrete magnetosonic emission lines started approximately at the proton gyrofrequency harmonics, qualitatively consistent with the prediction of linear proton Bernstein mode instability. In the frequency-time spectrograms, these emission lines exhibited a clear rising tone characteristic with a long duration of 15-25 mins, implying the additional contribution of other undiscovered mechanisms. Nearly at the same time, the magnetosonic waves arose at lower L-shells without substorm injections. The wave signals at two different locations, separated by ΔL up to 2.0 and by ΔMLT up to 4.2, displayed the consistent frequency-time structures, strongly supporting the hypothesis about the radial and azimuthal propagation of magnetosonic waves.

Su, Zhenpeng; Wang, Geng; Liu, Nigang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 07/2018

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074362

Bernstein mode instability; magnetosonic waves; Radiation belt; rising tone; substorm injection; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

In situ observations of magnetosonic waves modulated by background plasma density

We report in situ observations by the Van Allen Probe mission that magnetosonic (MS) waves are clearly relevant to appear relevant to the background plasma number density. As the satellite moved across dense and tenuous plasma alternatively, MS waves occurred only in lower density region. As the observed protons with \textquoteleftring\textquoteright distributions provide free energy, local linear growth rates are calculated and show that magnetosonic waves can be locally excited in tenuous plasma. With variations of the background plasma density, the temporal variations of local wave growth rates calculated with the observed proton ring distributions, show a remarkable agreement with those of the observed wave amplitude. Therefore, the paper provides a direct proof that background plasma densities can modulate the amplitudes of magnetosonic waves through controlling the wave growth rates.

Yuan, Zhigang; Yu, Xiongdong; Huang, Shiyong; Wang, Dedong; Funsten, Herbert;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 07/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074681

\textquoterightring\textquoteright distributions; local linear growth rates; magnetosonic waves; Ring current ions; Van Allen Probes

Roles of whistler-mode waves and magnetosonic waves in changing the outer radiation belt and the slot region

Using the Van Allen Probe long-term (2013 \textendash 2015) observations and quasi-linear simulations of wave-particle interactions, we examine the combined or competing effects of whistler-mode waves (chorus or hiss) and magnetosonic (MS) waves on energetic (<0.5 MeV) and relativistic (>0.5 MeV) electrons inside and outside the plasmasphere. Although whistler-mode chorus waves and MS waves can singly or jointly accelerate electrons from the hundreds of keV energy to the MeV energy in the low-density trough, most of the relativistic electron enhancement events are best correlated with the chorus wave emissions outside the plasmapause. Inside the plasmasphere, intense plasmaspheric hiss can cause the net loss of relativistic electrons via persistent pitch angle scattering, regardless of whether MS waves were present or not. The intense hiss waves not only create the energy-dependent electron slot region, but also remove a lot of the outer radiation belt electrons when the expanding dayside plasmasphere frequently covers the outer zone. Since whistler-mode waves (chorus or hiss) can resonate with more electrons than MS waves, they play dominant roles in changing the outer radiation belt and the slot region. However, MS waves can accelerate the energetic electrons below 400 keV and weaken their loss inside the plasmapause. Thus, MS waves and plasmaspheric hiss generate different competing effects on energetic and relativistic electrons in the high-density plasmasphere.

Li, L; Yu, J.; Cao, J.; Yang, J; Li, X.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023634

magnetosonic waves; Plasmapause movement; Spatial variation of outer radiaton belt; Spatial variation of slot region; Temporal-spatial variations of chorus waves; Temporal-spatial variations of plasmaspheric hiss; Van Allen Probes


Formation of Energetic Electron Butterfly Distributions by Magnetosonic Waves via Landau Resonance

Radiation belt electrons can exhibit different types of pitch angle distributions in response to various magnetospheric processes. Butterfly distributions, characterized by flux minima at pitch angles around 90\textdegree, are broadly observed in both the outer and inner belts and the slot region. Butterfly distributions close to the outer magnetospheric boundary have been attributed to drift shell splitting and losses to the magnetopause. However, their occurrence in the inner belt and the slot region has hitherto not been resolved. By analyzing the particle and wave data collected by the Van Allen Probes during a geomagnetic storm, we combine test particle calculations and Fokker-Planck simulations to reveal that scattering by equatorial magnetosonic waves is a significant cause for the formation of energetic electron butterfly distributions in the inner magnetosphere. Another event shows that a large-amplitude magnetosonic wave in the outer belt can create electron butterfly distributions in just a few minutes.

Li, Jinxing; Ni, Binbin; Ma, Qianli; Xie, Lun; Pu, Zuyin; Fu, Suiyan; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Chen, Lunjin; Li, Wen; Baker, Daniel; Kletzing, Craig; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Fennell, Joseph; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan; Funsten, Herbert; Summers, Danny;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 04/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL067853

butterfly distributions; energetic electrons; Landau resonance; magnetosonic waves; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

Ultrarelativistic electron butterfly distributions created by parallel acceleration due to magnetosonic waves

The Van Allen Probe observations during the recovery phase of a large storm that occurred on 17 March 2015 showed that the ultrarelativistic electrons at the inner boundary of the outer radiation belt (L* = 2.6\textendash3.7) exhibited butterfly pitch angle distributions, while the inner belt and the slot region also showed evidence of sub-MeV electron butterfly distributions. Strong magnetosonic waves were observed in the same regions and at the same time periods as these butterfly distributions. Moreover, when these magnetosonic waves extended to higher altitudes (L* = 4.1), the butterfly distributions also extended to the same region. Combining test particle calculations and Fokker-Planck diffusion simulations, we successfully reproduced the formation of the ultrarelativistic electron butterfly distributions, which primarily result from parallel acceleration caused by Landau resonance with magnetosonic waves. The coexistence of ultrarelativistic electron butterfly distributions with magnetosonic waves was also observed in the 24 June 2015 storm, providing further support that the magnetosonic waves play a key role in forming butterfly distributions.

Li, Jinxing; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard; Li, Wen; Ma, Qianli; Baker, Daniel; Reeves, Geoffrey; Fennell, Joseph; Spence, Harlan; Kletzing, Craig; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Blake, Bernard.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022370

butterfly distributions; Landau resonance; magnetosonic waves; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes


Electron scattering by magnetosonic waves in the inner magnetosphere

We investigate the importance of electron scattering by magnetosonic waves in the Earth\textquoterights inner magnetosphere. A statistical survey of the magnetosonic wave amplitude and wave frequency spectrum, as a function of geomagnetic activity, is performed using the Van Allen Probes wave measurements, and is found to be generally consistent with the wave distribution obtained from previous spacecraft missions. Outside the plasmapause the statistical frequency distribution of magnetosonic waves follows the variation of the lower hybrid resonance frequency, but this trend is not observed inside the plasmasphere. Drift and bounce averaged electron diffusion rates due to magnetosonic waves are calculated using a recently developed analytical formula. The resulting time scale of electron energization during disturbed conditions (when AE* > 300 nT) is more than ten days. We perform a 2D simulation of the electron phase space density evolution due to magnetosonic wave scattering during disturbed conditions. Outside the plasmapause, the waves accelerate electrons with pitch angles between 50\textdegree and 70\textdegree, and form butterfly pitch angle distributions at energies from ~100 keV to a few MeV over a time scale of several days; whereas inside the plasmapause, the electron acceleration is very weak. Our study suggests that intense magnetosonic waves may cause the butterfly distribution of radiation belt electrons especially outside the plasmapause, but electron acceleration due to magnetosonic waves is generally not as effective as chorus wave acceleration.

Ma, Qianli; Li, Wen; Thorne, Richard; Bortnik, Jacob; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021992

Electron scattering; magnetosonic waves; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes statistics

Penetration of magnetosonic waves into the plasmasphere observed by the Van Allen Probes

During the small storm on 14\textendash15 April 2014, Van Allen Probe A measured a continuously distinct proton ring distribution and enhanced magnetosonic (MS) waves along its orbit outside the plasmapause. Inside the plasmasphere, strong MS waves were still present but the distinct proton ring distribution was falling steeply with distance. We adopt a sum of subtracted bi-Maxwellian components to model the observed proton ring distribution and simulate the wave trajectory and growth. MS waves at first propagate toward lower L shells outside the plasmasphere, with rapidly increasing path gains related to the continuous proton ring distribution. The waves then gradually cross the plasmapause into the deep plasmasphere, with almost unchanged path gains due to the falling proton ring distribution and higher ambient density. These results present the first report on how MS waves penetrate into the plasmasphere with the aid of the continuous proton ring distributions during weak geomagnetic activities.

Xiao, Fuliang; Zhou, Qinghua; He, Yihua; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 09/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL065745

Geomagnetic storms; magnetosonic waves; proton ring distribution; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probe results; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Low-harmonic magnetosonic waves observed by the Van Allen Probes

Purely compressional electromagnetic waves (fast magnetosonic waves), generated at multiple harmonics of the local proton gyrofrequency, have been observed by various types of satellite instruments (fluxgate and search coil magnetometers and electric field sensors), but most recent studies have used data from search coil sensors, and many have been restricted to high harmonics. We report here on a survey of low-harmonic waves, based on electric and magnetic field data from the EFW double probe and EMFISIS fluxgate magnetometer instruments, respectively, on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft during its first full precession through all local times, from October 1, 2012 through July 13, 2014. These waves were observed both inside and outside the plasmapause (PP), at L shells from 2.4 to ~6 (the spacecraft apogee), and in regions with plasma number densities ranging from 10 to >1000 cm-3. Consistent with earlier studies, wave occurrence was sharply peaked near the magnetic equator. Waves appeared at all local times but were more common from noon to dusk, and often occurred within three hours after substorm injections. Outside the PP occurrence maximized broadly across noon, and inside the PP occurrence maximized in the dusk sector, in an extended plasmasphere. We confirm recent ray-tracing studies showing wave refraction and/or reflection at PP-like boundaries. Comparison with waveform receiver data indicates that in some cases these low-harmonic magnetosonic wave events occurred independently of higher-harmonic waves; this indicates the importance of including this population in future studies of radiation belt dynamics.

Posch, J.; Engebretson, M.; Olson, C.; Thaller, S.; Breneman, A.; Wygant, J.; Boardsen, S.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C.; Reeves, G.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021179

equatorial noise; inner magnetosphere; magnetosonic waves; Van Allen Probes; waves in plasmas

Nonlinear Bounce Resonances between Magnetosonic Waves and Equatorially Mirroring Electrons

Equatorially mirroring energetic electrons pose an interesting scientific problem, since they generally cannot resonate with any known plasma waves and hence cannot be scattered down to lower pitch angles. Observationally it is well known that the fluxof these equatorial particles does not simply continue to build up indefinitely, and so a mechanism must necessarily exist that transports these particles from a equatorial pitch angle of 90 degrees down to lower values. However this mechanism has not been uniquely identified yet. Here, we investigate the mechanism of bounce resonance with equatorial noise (or fast magnetosonic waves). A test particle simulation is used to examine the effects of monochromatic magnetosonic waves on the equatorially mirroring energetic electrons, with a special interest in characterizing the effectiveness of bounce resonances. Our analysis shows that bounce resonances can occur at the first three harmonics of the bounce frequency (nωb, n = 1 , 2, and 3 ) and can effectively reduce the equatorial pitch angle to values where resonant scattering by whistler-mode waves becomes possible. We demonstrate that the nature of bounce resonance is nonlinear and we propose a nonlinear oscillation model for characterizing bounce resonances using two key parameters, effective wave amplitude \~A and normalized wave number inline image. The threshold for higher harmonic resonance is more strict, favoring higher \~A and inline image and the change in equatorial pitch angle is strongly controlled by inline image. We also investigate the dependence of bounce resonance effects on various physical parameters, including wave amplitude, frequency, wave normal angle and initial phase, plasmadensity, and electron energy. It is found that the effect of bounce resonance is sensitive to the wave normal angle. We suggest that the bounce resonant interaction might lead to an observed pitch angle distribution with a minimum at 90o.

Chen, Lunjin; Maldonado, Armando; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard; Li, Jinxing; Dai, Lei; Zhan, Xiaoya;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021174

bounce resonance; equatorioal noise; magnetosonic waves; nonlinear; Radiation belt; wave particle interaction

Equatorial noise emissions with quasiperiodic modulation of wave intensity

Equatorial noise (EN) emissions are electromagnetic wave events at frequencies between the proton cyclotron frequency and the lower hybrid frequency observed in the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere. They propagate nearly perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, and they exhibit a harmonic line structure characteristic of the proton cyclotron frequency in the source region. However, they were generally believed to be continuous in time. We investigate more than 2000 EN events observed by the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations and Wide-Band Data Plasma Wave investigation instruments on board the Cluster spacecraft, and we show that this is not always the case. A clear quasiperiodic (QP) time modulation of the wave intensity is present in more than 5\% of events. We perform a systematic analysis of these EN events with QP modulation of the wave intensity. Such events occur usually in the noon-to-dawn magnetic local time sector. Their occurrence seems to be related to the increased geomagnetic activity, and it is associated with the time intervals of enhanced solar wind flow speeds. The modulation period of these events is on the order of minutes. Compressional ULF magnetic field pulsations with periods about double the modulation periods of EN wave intensity and magnitudes on the order of a few tenths of nanotesla were identified in about 46\% of events. We suggest that these compressional magnetic field pulsations might be responsible for the observed QP modulation of EN wave intensity, in analogy to formerly reported VLF whistler mode QP events.

emec, F.; Santolik, O.; a, Hrb\; Pickett, J.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020816

equatorial noise; magnetosonic waves; quasiperiodic modulation

Intensities and spatiotemporal variability of equatorial noise emissions observed by the Cluster spacecraft

Equatorial noise (EN) emissions are electromagnetic waves observed in the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere at frequencies between the proton cyclotron frequency and the lower hybrid frequency. We present the analysis of 2229 EN events identified in the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF) experiment data of the Cluster spacecraft during the years 2001\textendash2010. EN emissions are distinguished using the polarization analysis, and their intensity is determined based on the evaluation of the Poynting flux rather than on the evaluation of only the electric/magnetic field intensity. The intensity of EN events is analyzed as a function of the frequency, the position of the spacecraft inside/outside the plasmasphere, magnetic local time, and the geomagnetic activity. The emissions have higher frequencies and are more intense in the plasma trough than in the plasmasphere. EN events observed in the plasma trough are most intense close to the local noon, while EN events observed in the plasmasphere are nearly independent on magnetic local time (MLT). The intensity of EN events is enhanced during disturbed periods, both inside the plasmasphere and in the plasma trough. Observations of the same events by several Cluster spacecraft allow us to estimate their spatiotemporal variability. EN emissions observed in the plasmasphere do not change on the analyzed spatial scales (ΔMLT<0.2h, Δr<0.2 RE), but they change significantly on time scales of about an hour. The same appears to be the case also for EN events observed in the plasma trough, although the plasma trough dependencies are less clear.

emec, F.; Santolik, O.; a, Hrb\; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020814

equatorial noise; magnetosonic waves

Systematic analysis of occurrence of equatorial noise emissions using 10 years of data from the Cluster mission

We report results of a systematic analysis of equatorial noise (EN) emissions which are also known as fast magnetosonic waves. EN occurs in the vicinity of the geomagnetic equator at frequencies between the local proton cyclotron frequency and the lower hybrid frequency. Our analysis is based on the data collected by the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations\textendashSpectrum Analyzer instruments on board the four Cluster spacecraft. The data set covers the period from January 2001 to December 2010. We have developed selection criteria for the visual identification of these emissions, and we have compiled a list of more than 2000 events identified during the analyzed time period. The evolution of the Cluster orbit enables us to investigate a large range of McIlwain\textquoterights parameter from about L\~1.1 to L\~10. We demonstrate that EN can occur at almost all analyzed L shells. However, the occurrence rate is very low (<6\%) at L shells below L=2.5 and above L=8.5. EN mostly occurs between L=3 and L=5.5, and within 7\textdegree of the geomagnetic equator, reaching 40\% occurrence rate. This rate further increases to more than 60\% under geomagnetically disturbed conditions. Analysis of occurrence rates as a function of magnetic local time (MLT) shows strong variations outside of the plasmasphere (with a peak around 15 MLT), while the occurrence rate inside the plasmasphere is almost independent on MLT. This is consistent with the hypothesis that EN is generated in the afternoon sector of the plasmapause region and propagates both inward and outward.

a, Hrb\; Santolik, O.; emec, F.; a, Mac\; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020268

equatorial noise; magnetosonic waves; plasmasphere; Radiation belts


Trapping waves in Earth\textquoterights plasmasphere

Earth\textquoterights magnetic field traps donut-shaped bands of radiation in a belt around the planet that react to solar eruptions by growing and shrinking. The Van Allen belts consist of two rings filled with particles from the solar wind and cosmic rays. Within the outer ring of the Van Allen belt sits the plasmasphere, which is the innermost part of the planet\textquoterights magnetic field and home to low-energy charged particles.

Betz, Eric;

Published by: Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union      Published on: 12/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014EO490016

magnetosonic waves; Van Allen Probes; wave excitation; wave propagation

The trapping of equatorial magnetosonic waves in the Earth\textquoterights outer plasmasphere

We investigate the excitation and propagation of equatorial magnetosonic waves observed by the Van Allen Probes and describe evidence for a trapping mechanism for magnetosonic waves in the Earth\textquoterights plasmasphere. Intense equatorial magnetosonic waves were observed inside the plasmasphere in association with a pronounced proton ring distribution, which provides free energy for wave excitation. Instability analysis along the inbound orbit demonstrates that broadband magnetosonic waves can be excited over a localized spatial region near the plasmapause. The waves can subsequently propagate into the inner plasmasphere and remain trapped over a limited radial extent, consistent with the predictions of near-perpendicular propagation. By performing a similar analysis on another observed magnetosonic wave event, we demonstrate that magnetosonic waves can also be trapped within local density structures. We suggest that perpendicular wave propagation is important for explaining the presence of magnetosonic waves in the Earth\textquoterights plasmasphere at locations away from the generation region.

Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Chen, L.; Thorne, R.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Reeves, G.; Henderson, M.; Spence, H.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 09/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL061414

magnetosonic waves; Van Allen Probes; wave excitation; wave propagation

Magnetosonic wave excitation by ion ring distributions in the Earth\textquoterights inner magnetosphere

Combining Time History of Events and Macroscale Interaction during Substorms (THEMIS) wave and particle observations and a quantitative calculation of linear wave growth rate, we demonstrate that magnetosonic (MS) waves can be locally excited by ion ring distributions in the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere when the ion ring energy is comparable to the local Alfven energy. MS waves in association with ion ring distributions were observed by THEMIS A on 24 November 2010 in the afternoon sector, both outside the plasmapause where the wave spectrum varied with fLHR and inside the plasmapause where the wave frequency band remained nearly constant. Our plasma instability analysis in three different regions shows that higher and narrow frequency band MS waves are excited locally outside the plasmapause, and lower and broad frequency band MS waves are excited in the region where the density slightly increases. However, there is no evidence for wave excitation inside the plasmapause, and wave propagation from a distant source is needed to explain their existence. The simulation of the MS wave growth rate spectra during this event agrees reasonably well with the observed wave magnetic field power spectra. We also simulated a MS wave event on 19 October 2011 in the dusk sector and found that the ion ring distribution with an ion ring energy slightly higher than the local Alfven energy can excite the typical broad band MS waves outside the plasmapause.

Ma, Qianli; Li, Wen; Chen, Lunjin; Thorne, Richard; Angelopoulos, Vassilis;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019591

magnetosonic waves; ring current; THEMIS observation; wave excitation