• Clicking on the title will open a new window with all details of the bibliographic entry.
  • Clicking on the DOI link will open a new window with the original bibliographic entry from the publisher.
  • Clicking on a single author will show all publications by the selected author.
  • Clicking on a single keyword, will show all publications by the selected keyword.

Found 9 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 9


Whistlers in the Plasmasphere

Abstract We study packages of VLF whistler-mode waves observed by the Van Allen Probes satellites in the equatorial plasmasphere. We demonstrate that the main mechanism providing localization of these waves inside relatively broad (>1 RE across the ambient magnetic field) magnetospheric regions is a combined effect of the transverse gradients in the plasma density and the ambient magnetic field. The criterion for the wave trapping by these gradients is the same as for the wave trapping inside a high-density duct with a symmetric, Gaussian-like profile of the density in the uniform magnetic field. This criterion can be used to determine the parallel wavelength of the wave with a known frequency trapped by the density and magnetic field inhomogeneities with known parameters. The developed theoretical approach demonstrates a good, quantitative agreement with the observations. The analytical results have been confirmed with comprehensive, time-dependent simulations of the electron-MHD model.

Streltsov, Anatoly;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

density inhomogeneity; duct; Plasmapause; plasmasphere; VLF waves; whistler; Van Allen Probes


The outer radiation belt response to the storm time development of seed electrons and chorus wave activity during CME and CIR storms

Gyroresonant wave-particle interactions with very low frequency whistler mode chorus waves can accelerate subrelativistic seed electrons (hundreds of keV) to relativistic energies in the outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms. In this study, we conduct a superposed epoch analysis of the chorus wave activity, the seed electron development, and the outer radiation belt electron response between L* = 2.5 and 5.5, for 25 coronal mass ejection and 35 corotating interaction region storms using Van Allen Probes observations. Electron data from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer and Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope instruments are used to monitor the storm-phase development of the seed and relativistic electrons, and magnetic field measurements from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science instrument are used to identify the chorus wave activity. Our results show a deeper (lower L*), stronger (higher flux), and earlier (epoch time) average seed electron enhancement and a resulting greater average radiation belt electron enhancement in coronal mass ejection storms compared to the corotating interaction region storms despite similar levels and lifetimes of average chorus wave activity for the two storm drivers. The earlier and deeper seed electron enhancement during the coronal mass ejection storms, likely driven by greater convection and substorm activity, provides a higher probability for local acceleration. These results emphasize the importance of the timing and the level of the seed electron enhancements in radiation belt dynamics.

Bingham, S.; Mouikis, C.; Kistler, L.; Boyd, A.; Paulson, K.; Farrugia, C.; Huang, C.; Spence, H.; Claudepierre, S.; Kletzing, C.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025963

CIR storms; CME storms; Radiation belts; seed electrons; Van Allen Probes; VLF waves


CIMI simulations with newly developed multi-parameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models

Numerical simulation studies of the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts are important to understand the acceleration and loss of energetic electrons. The Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model considers the effects of the ring current and plasmasphere on the radiation belts to obtain plausible results. The CIMI model incorporates pitch angle, energy, and cross diffusion of electrons, due to chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves. These parameters are calculated using statistical wave distribution models of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss amplitudes. However, currently these wave distribution models are based only on a single parameter, geomagnetic index (AE), and could potentially underestimate the wave amplitudes. Here we incorporate recently developed multi-parameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models based on geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters. We then perform CIMI simulations for two geomagnetic storms and compare the flux enhancement of MeV electrons with data from the Van Allen Probes and Akebono satellites. We show that the relativistic electron fluxes calculated with multi-parameter wave models resembles the observations more accurately than the relativistic electron fluxes calculated with single-parameter wave models. This indicates that wave models based on a combination of geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters are more effective as inputs to radiation belt models.

Aryan, Homayon; Sibeck, David; Bin Kang, Suk-; Balikhin, Michael; Fok, Mei-Ching; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Komar, Colin; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Nagai, Tsugunobu;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024159

Chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models; CIMI numerical simulations; Geomagnetic storm events; Radiation belt electron flux enhancements; Van Allen Probes; VLF waves; Wave-particle interaction

VLF waves from ground-based transmitters observed by the Van Allen Probes: Statistical model and effects on plasmaspheric electrons

Whistler-mode Very Low Frequency (VLF) waves from powerful ground-based transmitters can resonantly scatter energetic plasmaspheric electrons and precipitate them into the atmosphere. A comprehensive 4-year statistics of Van Allen Probes measurements is carried out to assess their consequences on the dynamics of the inner radiation belt and slot region. Statistical models of the measured wave electric field power and of the inferred full wave magnetic amplitude are provided as a function of L, magnetic local time, season, and Kp over L=1-3, revealing the localization of VLF wave intensity and its variation with geomagnetic activity over 2012-2016. Since this VLF wave model can be directly used together with existing hiss and lightning-generated wave models in radiation belt simulation codes, we perform numerical calculations of the corresponding quasilinear pitch angle diffusion rates, allowing us to demonstrate the crucial role played by VLF waves from transmitters in energetic electron loss at L<2.5.

Ma, Qianli; Mourenas, Didier; Li, Wen; Artemyev, Anton; Thorne, Richard;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 06/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL073885

Electron scattering; Statistical wave model; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes observation; VLF waves

Chorus whistler wave source scales as determined from multipoint Van Allen Probe measurements

Whistler mode chorus waves are particularly important in outer radiation belt dynamics due to their key role in controlling the acceleration and scattering of electrons over a very wide energy range. The key parameters for both nonlinear and quasi-linear treatment of wave-particle interactions are the temporal and spatial scales of the wave source region and coherence of the wave field perturbations. Neither the source scale nor the coherence scale is well established experimentally, mostly because of a lack of multipoint VLF waveform measurements. We present an unprecedentedly long interval of coordinated VLF waveform measurements (sampled at 16384 s-1) aboard the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft\textemdash9 h (0800\textendash1200 UT and 1700\textendash2200 UT) during two consecutive apogees on 15 July 2014. The spacecraft separations varied from about 100 to 5000 km (mostly radially); measurements covered an L shell range from 3 to 6; magnetic local time 0430\textendash0900, and magnetic latitudes were ~15 and ~5\textdegree during the two orbits. Using time-domain correlation techniques, the single chorus source spatial extent transverse to the background magnetic field has been determined to be about 550\textendash650 km for upper band chorus waves with amplitudes less than 100 pT and up to 800 km for larger amplitude, lower band chorus waves. The ratio between wave amplitudes measured on the two spacecraft is also examined to reveal that the wave amplitude distribution within a single chorus element generation area can be well approximated by a Gaussian exp(-0.5 \textperiodcentered r2/r02), with the characteristic scale r0 around 300 km. Waves detected by the two spacecraft were found to be coherent in phase at distances up to 400 km.

Agapitov, O.; Blum, L.; Mozer, F.; Bonnell, J.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 03/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL072701

chorus spatial scales; Van Allen Probes; VLF waves


Identification of the source of quasiperiodic VLF emissions using ground-based and Van Allen Probes satellite observations

We report on simultaneous spacecraft and ground-based observations of quasiperiodic VLF emissions and related energetic-electron dynamics. Quasiperiodic emissions in the frequency range 2\textendash6 kHz were observed during a substorm on 25 January 2013 by Van Allen Probe-A and a ground-based station in the Northern Finland. The spacecraft detected the VLF signals near the geomagnetic equator in the night sector at L = 3.0\textendash4.2 when it was inside the plasmasphere. During the satellite motion toward higher latitudes, the time interval between quasiperiodic elements decreased from 6 min to 3 min. We find one-to-one correspondence between the quasiperiodic elements detected by Van Allen Probe-A and on the ground, which indicates the temporal nature of the observed variation in the time interval between quasiperiodic elements. Multiсomponent measurements of the wave electric and magnetic fields by the Van Allen Probe-A show that the quasiperiodic emissions were almost circularly right-hand polarized whistler mode waves and had predominantly small (below 30\textdegree) wave vector angles with respect to the magnetic field. In the probable source region of these signals (L about 4), we observed synchronous variations of electron distribution function at energies of 10\textendash20 keV and the quasiperiodic elements. In the pause between the quasiperiodic elements pitch angle distribution of these electrons had a maximum near 90\textdegree, while they become more isotropic during the development of quasiperiodic elements. The parallel energies of the electrons for which the data suggest direct evidence of the wave-particle interactions is in a reasonable agreement with the estimated cyclotron resonance energy for the observed waves.

Titova, E.; Kozelov, B.; Demekhov, A.; Manninen, J.; Santolik, O.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/grl.v42.1510.1002/2015GL064911

energetic electrons; quasiperiodic emissions; Van Allen Probes; VLF waves

Source and Seed Populations for Relativistic Electrons: Their Roles in Radiation Belt Changes

Strong enhancements of outer Van Allen belt electrons have been shown to have a clear dependence on solar wind speed and on the duration of southward interplanetary magnetic field. However, individual case study analyses also have demonstrated that many geomagnetic storms produce little in the way of outer belt enhancements and, in fact, may produce substantial losses of relativistic electrons. In this study, focused upon a key period in August-September 2014, we use GOES geostationary orbit electron flux data and Van Allen Probes particle and fields data to study the process of radiation belt electron acceleration. One particular interval, 13-22 September, initiated by a short-lived geomagnetic storm and characterized by a long period of primarily northward IMF, showed strong depletion of relativistic electrons (including an unprecedented observation of long-lasting depletion at geostationary orbit) while an immediately preceding, and another immediately subsequent, storm showed strong radiation belt enhancement. We demonstrate with these data that two distinct electron populations resulting from magnetospheric substorm activity are crucial elements in the ultimate acceleration of highly relativistic electrons in the outer belt: the source population (tens of keV) that give rise to VLF wave growth; and the seed population (hundreds of keV) that are, in turn, accelerated through VLF wave interactions to much higher energies. ULF waves may also play a role by either inhibiting or enhancing this process through radial diffusion effects. If any components of the inner magnetospheric accelerator happen to be absent, the relativistic radiation belt enhancement fails to materialize.

Jaynes, A.N.; Baker, D.N.; Singer, H.J.; Rodriguez, J.V.; Loto\textquoterightaniu, T.M.; Ali, A.; Elkington, S.R.; Li, X.; Kanekal, S.G.; Fennell, J.F.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.M.; Kletzing, C.A.; Spence, H.E.; Reeves, G.D.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021234

Radiation belts; relativistic electrons; substorms; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes; VLF waves

Correlated Pc4-5 ULF waves, whistler-mode chorus and pulsating aurora observed by the Van Allen Probes and ground-based systems

Theory and observations have linked equatorial VLF waves with pulsating aurora for decades, invoking the process of pitch-angle scattering of 10\textquoterights keV electrons in the equatorial magnetosphere. Recently published satellite studies have strengthened this argument, by showing strong correlation between pulsating auroral patches and both lower-band chorus and 10\textquoterights keV electron modulation in the vicinity of geosynchronous orbit. Additionally, a previous link has been made between Pc4-5 compressional pulsations and modulation of whistler-mode chorus using THEMIS. In the current study, we present simultaneous in-situ observations of structured chorus waves and an apparent field line resonance (in the Pc4-5 range) as a result of a substorm injection, observed by Van Allen Probes, along with ground-based observations of pulsating aurora. We demonstrate the likely scenario being one of substorm-driven Pc4-5 ULF pulsations modulating chorus waves, and thus providing the driver for pulsating particle precipitation into the Earth\textquoterights atmosphere. Interestingly, the modulated chorus wave and ULF wave periods are well correlated, with chorus occurring at half the periodicity of the ULF waves. We also show, for the first time, a particular few-Hz modulation of individual chorus elements that coincides with the same modulation in a nearby pulsating aurora patch. Such modulation has been noticed as a high-frequency component in ground-based camera data of pulsating aurora for decades, and may be a result of nonlinear chorus wave interactions in the equatorial region.

Jaynes, A.; Lessard, M.; Takahashi, K.; Ali, A.; Malaspina, D.; Michell, R.; Spanswick, E.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Cully, C.; Donovan, E.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.; Samara, M.; Spence, H.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021380

aurora; precipitation; pulsating aurora; substorms; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes; VLF waves

Analysis of the effectiveness of ground-based VLF wave observations for predicting or nowcasting relativistic electron flux at geostationary orbit

Poststorm relativistic electron flux enhancement at geosynchronous orbit has shown correlation with very low frequency (VLF) waves measured by satellite in situ. However, our previous study found little correlation between electron flux and VLF measured by a ground-based instrument at Halley, Antarctica. Here we explore several possible explanations for this low correlation. Using 220 storms (1992\textendash2002), our previous work developed a predictive model of the poststorm flux at geosynchronous orbit based on explanatory variables measured a day or two before the flux increase. In a nowcast model, we use averages of variables from the time period when flux is rising during the recovery phase of geomagnetic storms and limit the VLF (1.0 kHz) measure to the dawn period at Halley (09:00\textendash12:00 UT). This improves the simple correlation of VLF wave intensity with flux, although the VLF effect in an overall multiple regression is still much less than that of other factors. When analyses are performed separately for season and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz orientation, VLF outweighs the influence of other factors only during winter months when IMF Bz is in an average northward orientation.

Simms, Laura; Engebretson, Mark; Smith, A.; Clilverd, Mark; Pilipenko, Viacheslav; Reeves, Geoffrey;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020337

relativistic electron flux; VLF waves