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Found 27 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 27


A statistical analysis of duration and frequency chirping rate of falling tone chorus

AbstractThe duration (τ) and chirping rate (Γ) of whistler mode chorus waves are two of the most important properties to understand chorus generation mechanism and to quantify effects of nonlinear wave particle interactions on radiation belt electron acceleration. In this study, we perform the first statistical analysis of the duration and chirping rate of falling tone chorus elements using Van Allen Probes data.We found that τ increases and Γ decreases with increasing L-shell, although the dependence is weak. The duration from dawnside and dayside have similar distributions, which is a bit longer than those from duskside and nightside. However, Γ has little dependence on MLT. The relation between τ and Γ shows that τ scales with Γ as , supporting one of the previous theoretical models of rising tone chorus in Teng et al.(2017). Our results should provide important insights to deepen our understanding of falling tone chorus excitation.

Xie, Yi; Teng, Shangchun; Wu, Yifan; Tao, Xin;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 09/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

chorus waves; falling tone; Frequency chirping; Van Allen Probes

Simultaneous pulsating aurora and microburst observations with ground-based fast auroral imagers and CubeSat FIREBIRD-II

Abstract We report on the relationship between a pulsating aurora and a relativistic electron microburst using simultaneous observations of ground-based fast auroral imagers with the FIREBIRD-� � CubeSat for the first time. We conducted a detailed analysis of an event on October 8, 2018 and found that the occurrence of the pulsating aurora with internal modulations corresponds to the flux enhancement of electrons with energy ranging from ∼220 keV to >1 MeV detected with Flight Unit 4, one of FIREBIRD’s CubeSat, with a time delay of ∼585 ms. Combining of this time delay result and time of flight model, we suggest that the theory the pulsating aurora and the microburst occur due to the chorus waves at different latitudes along the same field-line by Miyoshi et al. (2020).

Kawamura, Miki; Sakanoi, Takeshi; Fukizawa, Mizuki; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Hosokawa, Keisuke; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Katoh, Yuto; Ogawa, Yasunobu; Asamura, Kazushi; Saito, Shinji; Spence, Harlan; Johnson, Arlo; Oyama, Shin’ichiro; Brändström, Urban;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 09/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

pulsating aurora; Microbursts; chorus waves; Van Allen Probes

Chorus and hiss scales in the inner magnetosphere: Statistics from high-resolution filter bank (FBK) Van Allen Proves multi-point measurements

AbstractThe spatial scales of whistler-mode waves, determined by their generation process, propagation, and damping, are important for assessing the scaling and efficiency of wave-particle interactions affecting the dynamics of the radiation belts. We use multi-point wave measurements in 2013-2019 by two identically equipped Van Allen Probes spacecraft covering all MLTs at L=2-6 near the geomagnetic equator to investigate the spatial extent of active regions of chorus and hiss waves, their wave amplitude distribution in the source/generation region, and the scales of chorus wave packets, employing a time-domain correlation technique to the spacecraft approaches closer than 1000 km, which happened every 70 days in 2012-2018 and every 35 days in 2018-2019. The correlation of chorus wave power dynamics using two spacecraft measurements is found to remain significant up to inter-spacecraft separations of 400 km to 750 km transverse to the background magnetic field direction, consistent with previous estimates of the chorus wave packet extent, but indicating the likely presence of two different scales of about 400 km and 750 km. Our results further suggest that the chorus source region can be slightly asymmetrical, more elongated in either the azimuthal or radial direction, which could also explain the aforementioned two different scales. An analysis of average chorus and hiss wave amplitudes at separate locations similarly reveals different radial and azimuthal extents of the corresponding wave active regions, complementing previous results based on THEMIS spacecraft statistics mainly at larger L>6. Both the chorus source region scale and the chorus active region size appear smaller inside the outer radiation belt (at L< 6) than at higher L-shells.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Agapitov, O.; Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Breneman, A.; Bonnell, J.W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

chorus waves; chorus genration; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Generation of realistic short chorus wave packets

Abstract Most lower-band chorus waves observed in the inner magnetosphere propagate under the form of moderately intense short wave packets with fast frequency and phase variations. Therefore, understanding the formation mechanism of such short wave packets is crucial for accurately modelling electron nonlinear acceleration or precipitation into the atmosphere by these waves. We compare chorus wave statistics from the Van Allen Probes with predictions from a simple model of short wave packet generation by wave superposition with resonance non-overlap, as well as with results from Vlasov Hybrid Simulations of chorus wave generation in an inhomogeneous magnetic field in the presence of one or two simultaneous triggering waves. We show that the observed moderate amplitude short chorus wave packets can be formed by a superposition of two or more waves generated near the magnetic equator with a sufficiently large frequency difference.

Nunn, D.; Zhang, X.-J.; Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 03/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

chorus waves; Radiation belts; Wave-particle interaction; Van Allen Probes

Multi-Point Observations of Quasiperiodic Emission Intensification and Effects on Energetic Electron Precipitation

AbstractThe two Van Allen Probes simultaneously recorded a coherently modulated quasiperiodic (QP) emission that persisted for 3 hours. The magnetic field pulsation at the locations of the two satellites showed a substantial difference, and their frequencies were close to but did not exactly match the repetition frequency of QP emissions for most of the time, suggesting that those coherent QP emissions probably originated from a common source, which then propagated over a broad area in the magnetosphere. The QP emissions were amplified by local anisotropic electron distributions, and their large-scale amplitudes were modulated by the plasma density. A novel observation of this event is that chorus waves at frequencies above QP emissions exhibit a strong correlation with QP emissions. Those chorus waves intensified when the QP emissions reach their peak frequency. This indicates that embryonic QP emissions may be critical for its own intensification as well as chorus waves under certain circumstances. The low-earth-orbit POES satellite observed enhanced energetic electron precipitation in conjunction with the Van Allen Probes, providing direct evidence that QP emissions precipitate energetic electrons into the atmosphere. This scenario is quantitatively confirmed by our quasilinear diffusion simulation results.

Li, Jinxing; Bortnik, Jacob; Ma, Qianli; Li, Wen; Shen, Xiaochen; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; An, Xin; Thaller, Scott; Breneman, Aaron; Wygant, John; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Hartley, David; Reeves, Geoffrey; Funsten, Herbert; Blake, Bernard; Spence, Harlan; Baker, Daniel;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

quasiperiodic emissions; electron precipitation; Radiation belt; chorus waves; Van Allen Probes; ULF wave


Multi-Parameter Chorus and Plasmaspheric Hiss Wave Models

Abstract The resonant interaction of energetic particles with plasma waves, such as chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves, plays a direct and crucial role in the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons that ultimately affect the dynamics of the radiation belts. In this study, we use the comprehensive wave data measurements made by the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science instruments on board the two Van Allen probes, to develop multi-parameter statistical chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models. The models of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves are presented as a function of combined geomagnetic activity (AE), solar wind velocity (V), and southward interplanetary magnetic field (Bs). The relatively smooth wave models reveal new features. Despite, the coupling between geomagnetic and solar wind parameters, the results show that each parameter still carries a sufficient amount of unique information to more accurately constrain the chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave intensities. The new wave models presented here highlight the importance of multi-parameter wave models, and can improve radiation belt modeling.

Aryan, Homayon; Bortnik, Jacob; Meredith, Nigel; Horne, Richard; Sibeck, David; Balikhin, Michael;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

chorus waves; inner magnetosphere; multi parameter wave distribution; plasmaspheric hiss waves; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions

Unraveling the Formation Mechanism for the Bursts of Electron Butterfly Distributions: Test Particle and Quasilinear Simulations

Energetic electron dynamics is highly affected by plasma waves through quasilinear and/or nonlinear interactions in the Earth s inner magnetosphere. In this letter, we provide physical explanations for a previously reported intriguing event from the Van Allen Probes observations, where bursts of electron butterfly distributions at tens of keV exhibit remarkable correlations with chorus waves. Both test particle and quasilinear simulations are used to reveal the formation mechanism for the bursts of electron butterfly distribution. The test particle simulation results indicate that nonlinear phase trapping due to chorus waves is the key process to accelerate electrons to form the electron butterfly distribution within ~30 s, and reproduces the observed features. Quasilinear simulation results show that although the diffusion process alone also contributes to form the electron butterfly distribution, the timescale is slower. Our study demonstrates the importance of nonlinear interaction in rapid electron acceleration at tens of keV by chorus waves.

Gan, L.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Artemyev, A.; Albert, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 10/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

butterfly distribution; chorus waves; Electron acceleration; Radiation belts; nonlinear interaction; Van Allen Probes

Electron Diffusion by Coexisting Plasmaspheric Hiss and Chorus Waves: Multisatellite Observations and Simulations

We report a rare event of intense plasmaspheric hiss and chorus waves simultaneously observed at the same L shell but different magnetic local times by Van Allen Probes and Magnetospheric Multiscale. Based on the measured waves and electron distributions, we calculate the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients and subsequently simulate the temporal evolution of electron distributions. The simulations show that the dynamics of tens to hundreds of keV electrons are jointly controlled by hiss and chorus. The dynamics of MeV electrons are dominantly controlled by hiss near the loss cone but by chorus at intermediate to large pitch angles. The simulated electron distributions driven by combined diffusion can reproduce the majority of the observations. Our results provide a direct observational evidence that hiss and chorus can simultaneously occur at the same electron drifting shells due to the irregular plasmasphere and highlight the importance of their combined effect on electron dynamics.

Yu, J.; Wang, J.; Li, L; Cui, J.; Cao, J.; He, Z.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 07/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

electron diffusion; Plasmaspheric Hiss; chorus waves; Van Allen Probes; MMS

Outer Radiation Belt Electron Lifetime Model Based on Combined Van Allen Probes and Cluster VLF Measurements

The flux of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt shows a high variability. The interactions of electrons with very low frequency (VLF) chorus waves play a significant role in controlling the flux variation of these particles. Quantifying the effects of these interactions is crucially important for accurately modeling the global dynamics of the outer radiation belt and to provide a comprehensive description of electron flux variations over a wide energy range (from the source population of 30 keV electrons up to the relativistic core population of the outer radiation belt). Here, we use a synthetic chorus wave model based on a combined database compiled from the Van Allen Probes and Cluster spacecraft VLF measurements to develop a comprehensive parametric model of electron lifetimes as a function of L-shell, electron energy, and geomagnetic activity. The wave model takes into account the wave amplitude dependence on geomagnetic latitude, wave normal angle distribution, and variations of wave frequency with latitude. We provide general analytical formulas to estimate electron lifetimes as a function of L-shell (for L = 3.0 to L = 6.5), electron energy (from 30 keV to 2 MeV), and geomagnetic activity parameterized by the AE index. The present model lifetimes are compared to previous studies and analytical results and also show a good agreement with measured lifetimes of 30 to 300 keV electrons at geosynchronous orbit.

Aryan, Homayon; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Artemyev, Anton; Mourenas, Didier; Balikhin, Michael; Boynton, Richard; Bortnik, Jacob;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

electron lifetimes; Van Allen radiation belts; chorus waves; pitch angle diffusion coefficients; Van Allen Probes; Cluster

The Role of the Dynamic Plasmapause in Outer Radiation Belt Electron Flux Enhancement

Abstract The plasmasphere is a highly dynamic toroidal region of cold, dense plasma around Earth. Plasma waves exist both inside and outside this region and can contribute to the loss and acceleration of high energy outer radiation belt electrons. Early observational studies found an apparent correlation on long time scales between the observed inner edge of the outer radiation belt and the modeled innermost plasmapause location. More recent work using high-resolution Van Allen Probes data has found a more complex relationship. For this study, we determine the standoff distance of the location of maximum electron flux of the outer belt MeV electrons from the plasmapause following rapid enhancement events. We find that the location of the outer radiation belt based on maximum electron flux is consistently outside the plasmapause, with a peak radial standoff distance of ∆L ~ 1. We discuss the implications this result has for acceleration mechanisms.

Bruff, M.; Jaynes, A.; Zhao, H.; Goldstein, J.; Malaspina, D.; Baker, D.; Kanekal, S.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 03/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1029/2020GL086991

Plasmapause; outer radiation belt; Magnetosphere; chorus waves; Van Allen Probes


Nonlinear Electron Interaction With Intense Chorus Waves: Statistics of Occurrence Rates

A comprehensive statistical analysis on 8 years of lower-band chorus wave packets measured by the Van Allen Probes and THEMIS spacecraft is performed to examine whether, when, and where these waves are above the theoretical threshold for nonlinear resonant wave-particle interaction. We find that \~5\textendash30\% of all chorus waves interact nonlinearly with \~30- to 300-keV electrons possessing equatorial pitch angles of >40\textdegree in the outer radiation belt, especially during disturbed (AE>500 nT) periods with energetic particles associated with injections from the plasma sheet. Such considerable occurrence rates of nonlinear interactions imply that the evolution of energetic electron fluxes should be dominated by nonlinear effects, rather than by quasi-linear diffusion as commonly assumed. We discuss the possible consequences of such a large amount of high-amplitude chorus waves and examine their characteristics that can influence the efficiency of nonlinear wave-particle interactions.

Zhang, X.-J.; Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R.; Kurth, W.; Kletzing, C.; Hospodarsky, G.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 06/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL083833

chorus waves; Electron acceleration; nonlinear wave particle interaction; THEMIS; Van Allen Probes; wave packet size

Typical Characteristics of Whistler Mode Waves Categorized by Their Spectral Properties Using Van Allen Probes Observations

Properties of banded, no-gap, lower band only, and upper band only whistler mode waves (0.1\textendash0.8fce) outside the plasmasphere are investigated using Van Allen Probes data. Our analysis shows that no-gap whistler waves have higher occurrence rate at morning side and dayside, while banded and lower band only waves have higher occurrence rate between midnight and dawn. We also find that the occurrence rate of no-gap whistler waves peaks at magnetic latitude |MLAT|\~8\textendash10\textdegree, while banded waves have higher occurrence rate near the equator for urn:x-wiley:grl:media:grl58818:grl58818-math-0001\textdegree. The wave normal angle distributions of these four groups of waves are similar to previous results. The distinct local time and latitudinal distribution of no-gap and banded whistler mode waves is critical to further understand the formation mechanism of the power minimum at half electron gyrofrequency.

Teng, S.; Tao, X.; Li, W.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 03/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL082161

banded whistler waves; chorus waves; no-gap whistler waves; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes observations of chorus wave vector orientations: Implications for the chorus-to-hiss mechanism

Using observations from the Van Allen Probes EMFISIS instrument, coupled with ray tracing simulations, we determine the fraction of chorus wave power with the conditions required to access the plasmasphere and evolve into plasmaspheric hiss. It is found that only an extremely small fraction of chorus occurs with the required wave vector orientation, carrying only a small fraction of the total chorus wave power. The exception is on the edge of plasmaspheric plumes, where strong azimuthal density gradients are present. In these cases, up to 94\% of chorus wave power exists with the conditions required to access the plasmasphere. As such, we conclude that strong azimuthal density gradients are actually a requirement if a significant fraction of chorus wave power is to enter the plasmasphere and be a source of plasmaspheric hiss. This result suggests it is unlikely that chorus directly contributes a significant fraction of plasmaspheric hiss wave power.

Hartley, D.; Kletzing, C.; Chen, L.; Horne, R.; ik, O.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL082111

chorus waves; EMFISIS; Plasmaspheric Hiss; plasmaspheric plumes; Van Allen Probes; wave normal angle


Electron flux enhancements at L = 4.2 observed by Global Positioning System satellites: Relationship with solar wind and geomagnetic activity

Determining solar wind and geomagnetic activity parameters most favorable to strong electron flux enhancements is an important step towards forecasting radiation belt dynamics. Using electron flux measurements from Global Positioning System satellites at L = 4.2 in 2009-2016, we seek statistical relationships between flux enhancements at different energies and solar wind dynamic pressure Pdyn, AE, and Kp, from hundreds of events inside and outside the plasmasphere. Most ⩾1 MeV electron flux enhancements occur during non-storm (or weak storm) times. Flux enhancements of 4 MeV electrons outside the plasmasphere occur during periods of low Pdyn and high AE. We perform superposed epoch analyses of GPS electron fluxes, along with solar wind and geomagnetic indices, 40 keV electron flux, ULF wave index from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), and chorus wave intensity from the Van Allen Probes and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) mission. We demonstrate that 4 MeV electron flux enhancements outside the plasmasphere start when the interplanetary magnetic field (Bz) reaches a minimum, and develop during periods of low Pdyn, high AE, low but increasing Dst, moderate ULF wave index, and intense chorus waves. Flux enhancements at 100 keV occur under conditions with higher Pdyn, higher ULF wave index, and elevated 40 keV electron flux at L = 6.6. Moreover, electron flux enhancements take much more time to develop at higher energies. This suggests that 100 keV flux enhancements are dominated by injections, while MeV electron energization is predominantly induced by chorus waves with further amplification by inward transport.

Zhang, X.-J.; Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Thorne, R.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025497

chorus waves; Electron energization; Electron flux enhancements; GPS satellites; Radiation belt; Solar wind and geomagnetic activities; Van Allen Probes

Properties of intense field-aligned lower-band chorus waves: Implications for nonlinear wave-particle interactions

Resonant interactions between electrons and chorus waves are responsible for a wide range of phenomena in near-Earth space (e.g., diffuse aurora, acceleration of MeV electrons, etc.). Although quasi-linear diffusion is believed to be the primary paradigm for describing such interactions, an increasing number of investigations suggest that nonlinear effects are also important in controlling the rapid dynamics of electrons. However, present models of nonlinear wave-particle interactions, which have been successfully used to describe individual short-term events, are not directly applicable for a statistical evaluation of nonlinear effects and the long-term dynamics of the outer radiation belt, because they lack information on the properties of intense (nonlinearly resonating with electrons) chorus waves. In this paper, we use the THEMIS and Van Allen Probes datasets of field-aligned chorus waveforms to study two key characteristics of these waves: effective amplitude w (nonlinear interaction can occur when w > 2) and wave-packet length β (the number of wave periods within it). While as many as 10 - 15\% of chorus wave-packets are sufficiently intense (w > 2 - 3) to interact nonlinearly with relativistic electrons, most of them are short (β < 10) reducing the efficacy of such interactions. Revised models of non-linear interactions are thus needed to account for the long-term effects of these common, intense but short chorus wave packets. We also discuss the dependence of w, β on location (MLT, L-shell) and on the properties of the suprathermal electron population.

Zhang, X.-J.; Thorne, R.; Artemyev, A.; Mourenas, D.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bortnik, J.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025390

chorus waves; Effective amplitude; nonlinear wave-particle interaction; spatial distribution; statistics; Van Allen Probes; Wave-packet length

Electron nonlinear resonant interaction with short and intense parallel chorus wave-packets

One of the major drivers of radiation belt dynamics, electron resonant interaction with whistler-mode chorus waves, is traditionally described using the quasi-linear diffusion approximation. Such a description satisfactorily explains many observed phenomena, but its applicability can be justified only for sufficiently low intensity, long duration waves. Recent spacecraft observations of a large number of very intense lower band chorus waves (with magnetic field amplitudes sometimes reaching \~1\% of the background) therefore challenge this traditional description, and call for an alternative approach when addressing the global, long-term effects of the nonlinear interaction of these waves with radiation belt electrons. In this paper, we first use observations from the Van Allen Probes and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft to show that the majority of intense parallel chorus waves consists of relatively short wave-packets. Then, we construct a kinetic equation describing the nonlinear resonant interaction of radiation belt electrons with such short and intense wave-packets. We demonstrate that this peculiar type of nonlinear interaction produces similar effects as quasi-linear diffusion, i.e., a flattening of the electron velocity distribution function within a certain energy/pitch-angle range. The main difference is the much faster evolution of the electron distribution when nonlinear interaction prevails.

Mourenas, D.; Zhang, X.-J.; Artemyev, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Neishtadt, A.; Vasiliev, A.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025417

chorus waves; ; kinetic equation; nonlinear interaction; Radiation belts; short wave-packets; trapping; Van Allen Probes

Statistical Properties of Plasmaspheric Hiss from Van Allen Probes Observations

Van Allen Probes observations are used to statistically investigate plasmaspheric hiss wave properties. This analysis shows that the wave normal direction of plasmaspheric hiss is predominantly field aligned at larger L shells, with a bimodal distribution, consisting of a near-field aligned and a highly oblique component, becoming apparent at lower L shells. Investigation of this oblique population reveals that it is most prevalent at L < 3, frequencies with f/fce> 0.01 (or f> 700 Hz), low geomagnetic activity levels, and between 1900 and 0900 MLT. This structure is similar to that reported for oblique chorus waves in the equatorial region, perhaps suggesting a causal link between the two wave modes. Ray tracing results from HOTRAY confirm that is feasible for these oblique chorus waves to be a source of the observed oblique plasmaspheric hiss population. The decrease in oblique plasmaspheric hiss occurrence rates during more elevated geomagnetic activity levels may be attributed to the increase in Landau resonant electrons causing oblique chorus waves to be more substantially damped outside of the plasmasphere. In turn, this restricts the amount of wave power that can access the plasmasphere and evolve into oblique plasmaspheric hiss. These results confirm that, despite the difference in location of this bimodal distribution compared to previous studies, a direct link between oblique equatorial chorus outside of the plasmasphere and oblique hiss at low L shells is plausible. As such, these results are in keeping with the existing theory of chorus as the source of plasmaspheric hiss.

Hartley, D.; Kletzing, C.; ik, O.; Chen, L.; Horne, R.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024593

Bimodal; chorus waves; EMFISIS; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Van Allen Probes; wave normal angle


Examining coherency scales, substructure, and propagation of whistler-mode chorus elements with Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS)

Whistler-mode chorus waves are a naturally occurring electromagnetic emission observed in Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere. Here, for the first time, data from NASA\textquoterights Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission were used to analyze chorus waves in detail, including the calculation of chorus wave normal vectors, k. A case study was examined from a period of substorm activity around the time of a conjunction between the MMS constellation and NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes mission on 07 April 2016. Chorus wave activity was simultaneously observed by all six spacecraft over a broad range of L-shells (5.5 < L < 8.5), magnetic local time (06:00 < MLT < 09:00), and magnetic latitude (-32\textdegree < MLat < -15\textdegree), implying a large chorus active region. Eight chorus elements and their substructure were analyzed in detail with MMS. These chorus elements were all lower band and rising tone emissions, right-handed and nearly circularly polarized, and propagating away from the magnetic equator when they were observed at MMS (MLat ~ -31\textdegree). Most of the elements had \textquotedbllefthook\textquotedblright like signatures on their wave power spectra, characterized by enhanced wave power at flat or falling frequency following the peak, and all the elements exhibited complex and well organized substructure observed consistently at all four MMS spacecraft at separations up to 70 km (60 km perpendicular and 38 km parallel to the background magnetic field). The waveforms in field-aligned coordinates also demonstrated that these waves were all phase coherent allowing for the direct calculation of k. Error estimates on calculated k revealed that the plane wave approximation was valid for six of the eight elements and most of the subelements. The wave normal vectors were within 20-30\textdegree from the direction anti-parallel to the background field for all elements and changed from subelement to subelement through at least two of the eight elements. The azimuthal angle of k in the perpendicular plane was oriented earthward and was oblique to that of the Poynting vector, which has implications for the validity of cold plasma theory.

Turner, D.; Lee, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Jaynes, A.; Leonard, T.; Wilder, F.; Ergun, R.; Baker, D.; Cohen, I.; Mauk, B.; Strangeway, R.; Hartley, D.; Kletzing, C.; Breuillard, H.; Le Contel, O.; Khotyaintsev, Yu; Torbert, R.; Allen, R.; Burch, J.; Santolik, O.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024474

chorus waves; inner magnetosphere; Magnetospheric multiscale; MMS; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Relativistic electron increase during chorus wave activities on the 6-8 March 2016 geomagnetic storm

There was a geomagnetic storm on 6\textendash8 March 2016, in which Van Allen Probes A and B separated by \~2.5 h measured increase of relativistic electrons with energies \~ several hundred keV to 1 MeV. Simultaneously, chorus waves were measured by both Van Allen Probes and Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission. Some of the chorus elements were rising-tones, possibly due to nonlinear effects. These measurements are compared with a nonlinear theory of chorus waves incorporating the inhomogeneity ratio and the field equation. From this theory, a chorus wave profile in time and one-dimensional space is simulated. Test particle calculations are then performed in order to examine the energization rate of electrons. Some electrons are accelerated, although more electrons are decelerated. The measured time scale of the electron increase is inferred to be consistent with this nonlinear theory.

Matsui, H.; Torbert, R.; Spence, H.; Argall, M.; Alm, L.; Farrugia, C.; Kurth, W.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Funsten, H.; Reeves, G.; Ergun, R.; Khotyaintsev, Yu.; Lindqvist, P.-A.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024540

chorus waves; Geomagnetic storm; relativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes


Evolution of chorus emissions into plasmaspheric hiss observed by Van Allen Probes

The two classes of whistler mode waves (chorus and hiss) play different roles in the dynamics of radiation belt energetic electrons. Chorus can efficiently accelerate energetic electrons, and hiss is responsible for the loss of energetic electrons. Previous studies have proposed that chorus is the source of plasmaspheric hiss, but this still requires an observational confirmation because the previously observed chorus and hiss emissions were not in the same frequency range in the same time. Here we report simultaneous observations form Van Allen Probes that chorus and hiss emissions occurred in the same range \~300\textendash1500 Hz with the peak wave power density about 10-5 nT2/Hz during a weak storm on 3 July 2014. Chorus emissions propagate in a broad region outside the plasmapause. Meanwhile, hiss emissions are confined inside the plasmasphere, with a higher intensity and a broader area at a lower frequency. A sum of bi-Maxwellian distribution is used to model the observed anisotropic electron distributions and to evaluate the instability of waves. A three-dimensional ray tracing simulation shows that a portion of chorus emission outside the plasmasphere can propagate into the plasmasphere and evolve into plasmaspheric hiss. Moreover, hiss waves below 1 kHz are more intense and propagate over a broader area than those above 1 kHz, consistent with the observation. The current results can explain distributions of the observed hiss emission and provide a further support for the mechanism of evolution of chorus into hiss emissions.

Zhou, Qinghua; Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; He, Yihua; Wygant, J.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022366

chorus waves; Plasmaspheric Hiss; RBSP results; Van Allen Probes

Nonlinearity in chorus waves during a geomagnetic storm on 1 November 2012

In this study, we investigate the possibility of nonlinearity in chorus waves during a geomagnetic storm on 1 November 2012. The data we use were measured by the Van Allen Probe B. Wave data and plasma sheet electron data are analyzed. Chorus waves were frequently measured in the morning side during the main phase of this storm. Large-amplitude chorus waves were seen of the order of \~0.6 nT and >7 mV/m, which are similar to or larger than the typical ULF waves. The waves quite often consist of rising tones during the burst sampling. Since the rising tone is known as a signature of nonlinearity, a large portion of the waves are regarded as nonlinear at least during the burst sampling periods. These results underline the importance of nonlinearity in the dynamics of chorus waves. We further compare the measurement and the nonlinear theories, based on the inhomogeneity ratio, our own calculation derived from the field equation and the backward wave oscillator model. The wave quantities examined are frequency, amplitude, frequency drift rate, and duration. This type of study is useful to more deeply understand wave-particle interactions and hence may lead to predicting the generation and loss of radiation belt electrons in the future.

Matsui, H.; Paulson, K.; Torbert, R.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Skoug, R.; Larsen, B.; Breneman, A.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021772

chorus waves; Geomagnetic storm; nonlinearity; Van Allen Probes


Relativistic electron scattering by magnetosonic waves: Effects of discrete wave emission and high wave amplitudes

In this paper, we study relativistic electron scattering by fast magnetosonic waves. We compare results of test particle simulations and the quasi-linear theory for different spectra of waves to investigate how a fine structure of the wave emission can influence electron resonant scattering. We show that for a realistically wide distribution of wave normal angles theta (i.e., when the dispersion delta theta >= 0.5 degrees), relativistic electron scattering is similar for a wide wave spectrum and for a spectrum consisting in well-separated ion cyclotron harmonics. Comparisons of test particle simulations with quasi-linear theory show that for delta theta > 0.5 degrees, the quasi-linear approximation describes resonant scattering correctly for a large enough plasma frequency. For a very narrow h distribution (when delta theta >= 0.05 degrees), however, the effect of a fine structure in the wave spectrum becomes important. In this case, quasi-linear theory clearly fails in describing accurately electron scattering by fast magnetosonic waves. We also study the effect of high wave amplitudes on relativistic electron scattering. For typical conditions in the earth\textquoterights radiation belts, the quasi-linear approximation cannot accurately describe electron scattering for waves with averaged amplitudes > 300 pT. We discuss various applications of the obtained results for modeling electron dynamics in the radiation belts and in the Earth\textquoterights magnetotail. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

Artemyev, A.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O.; Krasnoselskikh, V.;

Published by: Physics of Plasmas      Published on: 06/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1063/1.4922061

chorus waves; CLUSTER SPACECRAFT; equatorial noise; MAGNETIC-FIELD; PLASMA; Quasi-linear diffusion; radiation belt electrons; RESONANT SCATTERING; Van Allen Probes; WHISTLER-MODE WAVES

Applying the cold plasma dispersion relation to whistler mode chorus waves: EMFISIS wave measurements from the Van Allen Probes

Most theoretical wave models require the power in the wave magnetic field in order to determine the effect of chorus waves on radiation belt electrons. However, researchers typically use the cold plasma dispersion relation to approximate the magnetic wave power when only electric field data are available. In this study, the validity of using the cold plasma dispersion relation in this context is tested using Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) observations of both the electric and magnetic spectral intensities in the chorus wave band (0.1\textendash0.9 fce). Results from this study indicate that the calculated wave intensity is least accurate during periods of enhanced wave activity. For observed wave intensities >10-3 nT2, using the cold plasma dispersion relation results in an underestimate of the wave intensity by a factor of 2 or greater 56\% of the time over the full chorus wave band, 60\% of the time for lower band chorus, and 59\% of the time for upper band chorus. Hence, during active periods, empirical chorus wave models that are reliant on the cold plasma dispersion relation will underestimate chorus wave intensities to a significant degree, thus causing questionable calculation of wave-particle resonance effects on MeV electrons.

Hartley, D.; Chen, Y.; Kletzing, C.; Denton, M.; Kurth, W.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020808

chorus waves; EMFISIS; energetic electrons; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions


Statistical analysis of ground-based chorus observations during geomagnetic storms

Chorus observations from two ground-based, Antarctic receiving stations are analyzed for a set of geomagnetic storms from 2000 to 2010. Superposed epoch analysis is performed together with statistical hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed quantities (geomagnetic indices, outer belt energetic electron fluxes, and chorus properties) are statistically significantly different as functions of storm phase, storm size, and storm type. Waves generated in the outer dayside magnetosphere and observed on the ground at South Pole Station are suppressed during main phase and are statistically unchanged from random intervals during recovery phase. Waves generated in the inner magnetosphere and observed on the ground at Palmer Station are significantly enhanced during storm main phase and for about 3 days into recovery. During main phase, there are larger enhancements in chorus occurrence, amplitude, and frequency extent as observed at Palmer during larger storms. During recovery phase, there are larger enhancements in chorus occurrence, amplitude, and frequency extent as observed at Palmer during larger storms and during storms where the average rate of electron flux increase, averaged across the outer belt, is higher.

Spasojevic, M.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.1010.1002/2014JA019975

chorus waves; Geomagnetic storms; outer belt electrons

The effects of magnetic fields on photoelectron-mediated spacecraft potential fluctuations

Previously, we have experimentally studied photoelectron-mediated spacecraft potential fluctuations associated with time-dependent external electric fields. In this paper, we investigate the effects of magnetic fields on such spacecraft potential fluctuations. A magnetic field is created above the UV-illuminated surface of a spacecraft model to alter the escape rate of photoelectrons. The packet of the observed potential oscillations becomes less positive with increasing magnetic field strength because more of the emitted photoelectrons are returned to the surface. As a result, the photoelectric charging time is increased, corresponding to a decrease in the response frequency of the photoemitting surface. The amplitude of the potential oscillations decreases when the response frequency becomes lower than the electric field oscillation frequency. A test particle simulation is validated with the laboratory experiments and applied to estimate the photoelectron escape rate from the Van Allen Probes spacecraft, showing that the photoelectron current is reduced by as much as 30\% when magnetic field strength is 1200 nT. Based on our laboratory results and computer simulations, we discuss the effects of magnetic fields on the spacecraft potential fluctuations observed by the Van Allen Probes.

Wang, X.; Malaspina, D.; Hsu, H.-W.; Ergun, R.; M., Hor\;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 09/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.910.1002/2014JA019923

chorus waves; magnetic fields; photoelectrons; spacecraft potential fluctuations; Van Allen Probes

Evidence of stronger pitch angle scattering loss caused by oblique whistler-mode waves as compared with quasi-parallel waves

Wave normal distributions of lower-band whistler-mode waves observed outside the plasmapause exhibit two peaks; one near the parallel direction and the other at very oblique angles. We analyze a number of conjunction events between the Van Allen Probes near the equatorial plane and POES satellites at conjugate low altitudes, where lower-band whistler-mode wave amplitudes were inferred from the two-directional POES electron measurements over 30\textendash100 keV, assuming that these waves were quasi-parallel. For conjunction events, the wave amplitudes inferred from the POES electron measurements were found to be overestimated as compared with the Van Allen Probes measurements primarily for oblique waves and quasi-parallel waves with small wave amplitudes (< ~20 pT) measured at low latitudes. This provides plausible experimental evidence of stronger pitch-angle scattering loss caused by oblique waves than by quasi-parallel waves with the same magnetic wave amplitudes, as predicted by numerical calculations.

Li, W.; Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Agapitov, O.; Bortnik, J.; Albert, J.; Thorne, R.; Ni, B.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL061260

chorus waves; electron precipitation; oblique whistler; pitch angle scattering

Photoelectron-mediated spacecraft potential fluctuations

Electric field fluctuations such as those due to plasma waves in Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere may modulate photoelectrons emitted from spacecraft surface, causing fluctuations in spacecraft potential. We experimentally investigate such photoelectron-mediated spacecraft potential fluctuations. The photoelectric charge of a spacecraft model is found to increase with increasing applied electric field as more photoelectrons escape the spacecraft model surface and dissipates with a decrease in the electric field through collection of ambient plasma electrons. When the applied electric field is driven to oscillate at a frequency lower than the response frequency of the spacecraft model, the surface potential follows the electric field oscillations. The spacecraft model maintains an approximately constant potential if the electric field oscillations are driven at a much higher frequency. When a high-frequency electric field modulated by a low-frequency envelope is applied, rectified oscillations in the potential of the spacecraft model are observed. Our experimental results indicate that photoelectron-mediated wave rectifications must be taken into account when spacecraft potential fluctuations are used to infer plasma density structures.

Wang, X.; Malaspina, D.; Ergun, R.; M., Hor\;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019502

chorus waves; electric field; Magnetosphere; photoelectrons; plasma density; spacecraft potential fluctuations