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Signature modeling for LWIR spectrometer

Hyperspectral longwave infrared (LWIR) is used for a variety of targets such as gases and solids with the advantage of day or night data collections. A longwave infrared system must have the ability to convert the radiance data it measures to emissivity prior to running a detection algorithm, commonly called a temperature-emissivity separation (TES) algorithm. Key parts of this TES algorithm are accounting for the reflected down-welling radiation from the atmosphere, upwelling background radiance removal, and most importantly determining the temperature of the material. Accounting for these environmental conditions allows for the data to be processed in emissivity to be used in the detection algorithm. The processed data also allows a baseline to determine where key features exist in the signatures collected. In this paper a new method is introduced to process field collected signatures gathered using the Design \& Prototypes microFTIR Model 102. The issue addressed here is calculating the collected signature from radiance to emissivity using a new technique for estimating the surface temperature of the collected sample. The key component of the TES was created to ensure the collected spectra are processed in emissivity space at a quality that is suitable for the detection library on air and ground LWIR systems.

Firpi, Alexer; Oxenrider, Jason; Ramachandran, Vignesh; Mitchell, Herbert; Tzeng, Nigel; Rodriguez, Benjamin;

Published by:       Published on: 03/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1109/AERO.2014.6836439

hyperspectral imaging; infrared imaging; infrared spectrometers; radiance data conversion

Evidence for injection of relativistic electrons into the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt via intense substorm electric fields

Observation and model results accumulated in the last decade indicate that substorms can promptly inject relativistic \textquoteleftkiller\textquoteright electrons (>=MeV) in addition to 10\textendash100 keV subrelativistic populations. Using measurements from Cluster, Polar, LANL, and GOES satellites near the midnight sector, we show in two events that intense electric fields, as large as 20 mV/m, associated with substorm dipolarization are associated with injections of relativistic electrons into the outer radiation belt. Enhancements of hundreds of keV electrons at dipolarization in the magnetotail can account for the injected MeV electrons through earthward transport. These observations provide evidence that substorm electric fields inject relativistic electrons by transporting magnetotail electrons into the outer radiation belt. In these two events, injected relativistic electrons dominated the substorm timescale enhancement of MeV electrons as observed at geosynchronous orbit.

Dai, Lei; Wygant, John; Cattell, Cynthia; Thaller, Scott; Kersten, Kris; Breneman, Aaron; Tang, Xiangwei; Friedel, Reiner; Claudepierre, Seth; Tao, Xin;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059228

radiation belt relativistic electrons; substorm dipolarization; substorm electric fields; substorm injection

Photoelectron-mediated spacecraft potential fluctuations

Electric field fluctuations such as those due to plasma waves in Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere may modulate photoelectrons emitted from spacecraft surface, causing fluctuations in spacecraft potential. We experimentally investigate such photoelectron-mediated spacecraft potential fluctuations. The photoelectric charge of a spacecraft model is found to increase with increasing applied electric field as more photoelectrons escape the spacecraft model surface and dissipates with a decrease in the electric field through collection of ambient plasma electrons. When the applied electric field is driven to oscillate at a frequency lower than the response frequency of the spacecraft model, the surface potential follows the electric field oscillations. The spacecraft model maintains an approximately constant potential if the electric field oscillations are driven at a much higher frequency. When a high-frequency electric field modulated by a low-frequency envelope is applied, rectified oscillations in the potential of the spacecraft model are observed. Our experimental results indicate that photoelectron-mediated wave rectifications must be taken into account when spacecraft potential fluctuations are used to infer plasma density structures.

Wang, X.; Malaspina, D.; Ergun, R.; M., Hor\;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019502

chorus waves; electric field; Magnetosphere; photoelectrons; plasma density; spacecraft potential fluctuations

Quantifying hiss-driven energetic electron precipitation: A detailed conjunction event analysis

We analyze a conjunction event between the Van Allen Probes and the low-altitude Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES) to quantify hiss-driven energetic electron precipitation. A physics-based technique based on quasi-linear diffusion theory is used to estimate the ratio of precipitated and trapped electron fluxes (R), which could be measured by the two-directional POES particle detectors, using wave and plasma parameters observed by the Van Allen Probes. The remarkable agreement between modeling and observations suggests that this technique is applicable for quantifying hiss-driven electron scattering near the bounce loss cone. More importantly, R in the 100\textendash300 keV energy channel measured by multiple POES satellites over a broad L magnetic local time region can potentially provide the spatiotemporal evolution of global hiss wave intensity, which is essential in evaluating radiation belt electron dynamics, but cannot be obtained by in situ equatorial satellites alone.

Li, W.; Ni, B.; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Nishimura, Y.; Green, J.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Gu, X.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059132

Van Allen Probes

The role of ring current particle injections: Global simulations and Van Allen Probes observations during 17 March 2013 storm

We simulate substorm injections observed by the Van Allen Probes during the 17 March 2013 storm using a self-consistent coupling between the ring current model RAM-SCB and the global MHD model BATS-R-US. This is a significant advancement compared to previous studies that used artificially imposed electromagnetic field pulses to mimic substorm dipolarization and associated inductive electric field. Several substorm dipolarizations and injections are reproduced in the MHD model, in agreement with the timing of shape changes in the AE/AL index. The associated inductive electric field transports plasma sheet plasma to geostationary altitudes, providing the boundary plasma source to the ring current model. It is found that impulsive plasma sheet injections, together with a large-scale convection electric field, are necessary to develop a strong ring current. Comparisons with Van Allen Probes observations show that our model reasonably well captures dispersed electron injections and the global Dst index.

Yu, Yiqun; Jordanova, Vania; Welling, Dan; Larsen, Brian; Claudepierre, Seth; Kletzing, Craig;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059322

ring current dynamics; self-consistent treatment of fields and plasma; Substorm Injections; Van Allen Probes

Chorus waves and spacecraft potential fluctuations: Evidence for wave-enhanced photoelectron escape

Chorus waves are important for electron energization and loss in Earth\textquoterights radiation belts and inner magnetosphere. Because the amplitude and spatial distribution of chorus waves can be strongly influenced by plasma density fluctuations and spacecraft floating potential can be a diagnostic of plasma density, the relationship between measured potential and chorus waves is examined using Van Allen Probes data. While measured potential and chorus wave electric fields correlate strongly, potential fluctuation properties are found not to be consistent with plasma density fluctuations on the timescales of individual chorus wave packets. Instead, potential fluctuations are consistent with enhanced photoelectron escape driven by chorus wave electric fields. Enhanced photoelectron escape may result in potential fluctuations of the spacecraft body, the electric field probes, or both, depending on the ambient plasma and magnetic field environment. These results differ significantly from prior interpretations of the correspondence between measured potential and wave electric fields.

Malaspina, D.; Ergun, R.; Sturner, A.; Wygant, J.; Bonnell, J; Breneman, A.; Kersten, K.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 01/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058769

Van Allen Probes

An empirically observed pitch-angle diffusion eigenmode in the Earth\textquoterights electron belt near L * = 5.0

Using data from NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes, we have identified a synchronized exponential decay of electron flux in the outer zone, near L* = 5.0. Exponential decays strongly indicate the presence of a pure eigenmode of a diffusion operator acting in the synchronized dimension(s). The decay has a time scale of about 4 days with no dependence on pitch angle. While flux at nearby energies and L* is also decaying exponentially, the decay time varies in those dimensions. This suggests the primary decay mechanism is elastic pitch angle scattering, which itself depends on energy and L*. We invert the shape of the observed eigenmode to obtain an approximate shape of the pitch angle diffusion coefficient and show excellent agreement with diffusion by plasmaspheric hiss. Our results suggest that empirically derived eigenmodes provide a powerful diagnostic of the dynamic processes behind exponential decays.

O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Claudepierre, S.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Clemmons, J.; Roeder, J.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 01/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058713

Van Allen Probes

Prompt energization of relativistic and highly relativistic electrons during a substorm interval: Van Allen Probes observations

On 17 March 2013, a large magnetic storm significantly depleted the multi-MeV radiation belt. We present multi-instrument observations from the Van Allen Probes spacecraft Radiation Belt Storm Probe A and Radiation Belt Storm Probe B at ~6 Re in the midnight sector magnetosphere and from ground-based ionospheric sensors during a substorm dipolarization followed by rapid reenergization of multi-MeV electrons. A 50\% increase in magnetic field magnitude occurred simultaneously with dramatic increases in 100 keV electron fluxes and a 100 times increase in VLF wave intensity. The 100 keV electrons and intense VLF waves provide a seed population and energy source for subsequent radiation belt enhancements. Highly relativistic (>2 MeV) electron fluxes increased immediately at L* ~ 4.5 and 4.5 MeV flux increased >90 times at L* = 4 over 5 h. Although plasmasphere expansion brings the enhanced radiation belt multi-MeV fluxes inside the plasmasphere several hours postsubstorm, we localize their prompt reenergization during the event to regions outside the plasmasphere.

Foster, J.; Erickson, P.; Baker, D.; Claudepierre, S.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Reeves, G.; Thaller, S.; Spence, H.; Shprits, Y; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 01/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058438

Van Allen Probes


Rapid local acceleration of relativistic radiation-belt electrons by magnetospheric chorus

Recent analysis of satellite data obtained during the 9 October 2012 geomagnetic storm identified the development of peaks in electron phase space density1, which are compelling evidence for local electron acceleration in the heart of the outer radiation belt2, 3, but are inconsistent with acceleration by inward radial diffusive transport4, 5. However, the precise physical mechanism responsible for the acceleration on 9 October was not identified. Previous modelling has indicated that a magnetospheric electromagnetic emission known as chorus could be a potential candidate for local electron acceleration6, 7, 8, 9, 10, but a definitive resolution of the importance of chorus for radiation-belt acceleration was not possible because of limitations in the energy range and resolution of previous electron observations and the lack of a dynamic global wave model. Here we report high-resolution electron observations11 obtained during the 9 October storm and demonstrate, using a two-dimensional simulation performed with a recently developed time-varying data-driven model12, that chorus scattering explains the temporal evolution of both the energy and angular distribution of the observed relativistic electron flux increase. Our detailed modelling demonstrates the remarkable efficiency of wave acceleration in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt, and the results presented have potential application to Jupiter, Saturn and other magnetized astrophysical objects.

Thorne, R.; Li, W.; Ni, B.; Ma, Q.; Bortnik, J.; Chen, L.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Henderson, M.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Kanekal, S.;

Published by: Nature      Published on: 12/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1038/nature12889

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Discovery of the action of a geophysical synchrotron in the Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts

Although the Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts were discovered over 50 years ago, the dominant processes responsible for relativistic electron acceleration, transport and loss remain poorly understood. Here we show evidence for the action of coherent acceleration due to resonance with ultra-low frequency waves on a planetary scale. Data from the CRRES probe, and from the recently launched multi-satellite NASA Van Allen Probes mission, with supporting modeling, collectively show coherent ultra-low frequency interactions which high energy resolution data reveals are far more common than either previously thought or observed. The observed modulations and energy-dependent spatial structure indicate a mode of action analogous to a geophysical synchrotron; this new mode of response represents a significant shift in known Van Allen radiation belt dynamics and structure. These periodic collisionless betatron acceleration processes also have applications in understanding the dynamics of, and periodic electromagnetic emissions from, distant plasma-astrophysical systems.

Mann, Ian; Lee, E.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; Degeling, A.; Rae, I.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Ozeke, L.; Rankin, R.; Milling, D.; Kale, A.; Friedel, R.; Honary, F.;

Published by: Nature Communications      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3795

Van Allen Probes

The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) on RBSP

The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) investigation on the NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (now named the Van Allen Probes) mission provides key wave and very low frequency magnetic field measurements to understand radiation belt acceleration, loss, and transport. The key science objectives and the contribution that EMFISIS makes to providing measurements as well as theory and modeling are described. The key components of the instruments suite, both electronics and sensors, including key functional parameters, calibration, and performance, demonstrate that EMFISIS provides the needed measurements for the science of the RBSP mission. The EMFISIS operational modes and data products, along with online availability and data tools provide the radiation belt science community with one the most complete sets of data ever collected.

Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Acuna, M.; MacDowall, R.; Torbert, R.; Averkamp, T.; Bodet, D.; Bounds, S.; Chutter, M.; Connerney, J.; Crawford, D.; Dolan, J.; Dvorsky, R.; Hospodarsky, G.; Howard, J.; Jordanova, V.; Johnson, R.; Kirchner, D.; Mokrzycki, B.; Needell, G.; Odom, J.; Mark, D.; Pfaff, R.; Phillips, J.; Piker, C.; Remington, S.; Rowland, D.; Santolik, O.; Schnurr, R.; Sheppard, D.; Smith, C.; Thorne, R.; Tyler, J.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-9993-6

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

The Electric Field and Waves (EFW) Instruments on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

The Electric Fields and Waves (EFW) Instruments on the two Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) spacecraft (recently renamed the Van Allen Probes) are designed to measure three dimensional quasi-static and low frequency electric fields and waves associated with the major mechanisms responsible for the acceleration of energetic charged particles in the inner magnetosphere of the Earth. For this measurement, the instrument uses two pairs of spherical double probe sensors at the ends of orthogonal centripetally deployed booms in the spin plane with tip-to-tip separations of 100 meters. The third component of the electric field is measured by two spherical sensors separated by \~15 m, deployed at the ends of two stacer booms oppositely directed along the spin axis of the spacecraft. The instrument provides a continuous stream of measurements over the entire orbit of the low frequency electric field vector at 32 samples/s in a survey mode. This survey mode also includes measurements of spacecraft potential to provide information on thermal electron plasma variations and structure. Survey mode spectral information allows the continuous evaluation of the peak value and spectral power in electric, magnetic and density fluctuations from several Hz to 6.5 kHz. On-board cross-spectral data allows the calculation of field-aligned wave Poynting flux along the magnetic field. For higher frequency waveform information, two different programmable burst memories are used with nominal sampling rates of 512 samples/s and 16 k samples/s. The EFW burst modes provide targeted measurements over brief time intervals of 3-d electric fields, 3-d wave magnetic fields (from the EMFISIS magnetic search coil sensors), and spacecraft potential. In the burst modes all six sensor-spacecraft potential measurements are telemetered enabling interferometric timing of small-scale plasma structures. In the first burst mode, the instrument stores all or a substantial fraction of the high frequency measurements in a 32 gigabyte burst memory. The sub-intervals to be downloaded are uplinked by ground command after inspection of instrument survey data and other information available on the ground. The second burst mode involves autonomous storing and playback of data controlled by flight software algorithms, which assess the \textquotedbllefthighest quality\textquotedblright events on the basis of instrument measurements and information from other instruments available on orbit. The EFW instrument provides 3-d wave electric field signals with a frequency response up to 400 kHz to the EMFISIS instrument for analysis and telemetry (Kletzing et al. Space Sci. Rev. 2013).

Wygant, J.; Bonnell, J; Goetz, K.; Ergun, R.E.; Mozer, F.; Bale, S.D.; Ludlam, M.; Turin, P.; Harvey, P.R.; Hochmann, R.; Harps, K.; Dalton, G.; McCauley, J.; Rachelson, W.; Gordon, D.; Donakowski, B.; Shultz, C.; Smith, C.; Diaz-Aguado, M.; Fischer, J.; Heavner, S.; Berg, P.; Malaspina, D.; Bolton, M.; Hudson, M.; Strangeway, R.; Baker, D.; Li, X.; Albert, J.; Foster, J.C.; Chaston, C.C.; Mann, I.; Donovan, E.; Cully, C.M.; Cattell, C.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Kersten, K.; Brenneman, A; Tao, J.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-0013-7

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

The Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) Instruments Aboard the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Spacecraft

This paper describes the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instruments aboard the RBSP spacecraft from an instrumentation and engineering point of view. There are four magnetic spectrometers aboard each of the two spacecraft, one low-energy unit (20\textendash240 keV), two medium-energy units (80\textendash1200 keV), and a high-energy unit (800\textendash4800 keV). The high unit also contains a proton telescope (55 keV\textendash20 MeV). The magnetic spectrometers focus electrons within a selected energy pass band upon a focal plane of several silicon detectors where pulse-height analysis is used to determine if the energy of the incident electron is appropriate for the electron momentum selected by the magnet. Thus each event is a two-parameter analysis, an approach leading to a greatly reduced background. The physics of these instruments are described in detail followed by the engineering implementation. The data outputs are described, and examples of the calibration results and early flight data presented.

Blake, J.; Carranza, P.; Claudepierre, S.; Clemmons, J.; Crain, W.; Dotan, Y.; Fennell, J.; Fuentes, F.; Galvan, R.; George, J.; Henderson, M.; Lalic, M.; Lin, A; Looper, M.; Mabry, D.; Mazur, J.; McCarthy, B.; Nguyen, C.; textquoterightBrien, T.; Perez, M.; Redding, M.; Roeder, J.; Salvaggio, D.; Sorensen, G.; Spence, H.; Yi, S.; Zakrzewski, M.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-9991-8

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Science Goals and Overview of the Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT) Suite on NASA\textquoterights Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Mission

The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP)-Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT) suite contains an innovative complement of particle instruments to ensure the highest quality measurements ever made in the inner magnetosphere and radiation belts. The coordinated RBSP-ECT particle measurements, analyzed in combination with fields and waves observations and state-of-the-art theory and modeling, are necessary for understanding the acceleration, global distribution, and variability of radiation belt electrons and ions, key science objectives of NASA\textquoterights Living With a Star program and the Van Allen Probes mission. The RBSP-ECT suite consists of three highly-coordinated instruments: the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) sensor, and the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT). Collectively they cover, continuously, the full electron and ion spectra from one eV to 10\textquoterights of MeV with sufficient energy resolution, pitch angle coverage and resolution, and with composition measurements in the critical energy range up to 50 keV and also from a few to 50 MeV/nucleon. All three instruments are based on measurement techniques proven in the radiation belts. The instruments use those proven techniques along with innovative new designs, optimized for operation in the most extreme conditions in order to provide unambiguous separation of ions and electrons and clean energy responses even in the presence of extreme penetrating background environments. The design, fabrication and operation of ECT spaceflight instrumentation in the harsh radiation belt environment ensure that particle measurements have the fidelity needed for closure in answering key mission science questions. ECT instrument details are provided in companion papers in this same issue. In this paper, we describe the science objectives of the RBSP-ECT instrument suite on the Van Allen Probe spacecraft within the context of the overall mission objectives, indicate how the characteristics of the instruments satisfy the requirements to achieve these objectives, provide information about science data collection and dissemination, and conclude with a description of some early mission results.

Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Bolton, M.; Bourdarie, S.; Chan, A.; Claudpierre, S.; Clemmons, J.; Cravens, J.; Elkington, S.; Fennell, J.; Friedel, R.; Funsten, H.; Goldstein, J.; Green, J.; Guthrie, A.; Henderson, M.; Horne, R.; Hudson, M.; Jahn, J.-M.; Jordanova, V.; Kanekal, S.; Klatt, B.; Larsen, B.; Li, X.; MacDonald, E.; Mann, I.R.; Niehof, J.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Onsager, T.; Salvaggio, D.; Skoug, R.; Smith, S.; Suther, L.; Thomsen, M.; Thorne, R.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-0007-5

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes observation of localized drift-resonance between poloidal mode ultra-low frequency waves and 60 keV electrons

[1] We present NASA Van Allen Probes observations of wave-particle interactions between magnetospheric ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves and energetic electrons (20\textendash500 keV) on 31 October 2012. The ULF waves are identified as the fundamental poloidal mode oscillation and are excited following an interplanetary shock impact on the magnetosphere. Large amplitude modulations in energetic electron flux are observed at the same period (≈ 3 min) as the ULF waves and are consistent with a drift-resonant interaction. The azimuthal mode number of the interacting wave is estimated from the electron measurements to be ~40, based on an assumed symmetric drift resonance. The drift-resonant interaction is observed to be localized and occur over 5\textendash6 wave cycles, demonstrating peak electron flux modulations at energies ~60 keV. Our observation clearly shows electron drift resonance with the fundamental poloidal mode, the energy dependence of the amplitude and phase of the electron flux modulations providing strong evidence for such an interaction. Significantly, the observation highlights the importance of localized wave-particle interactions for understanding energetic particle dynamics in the inner magnetosphere, through the intermediary of ULF waves.

Claudepierre, S.; Mann, I.R.; Takahashi, K; Fennell, J.; Hudson, M.; Blake, J.; Roeder, J.; Clemmons, J.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Funsten, H.; Friedel, R.; Henderson, M.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 09/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/grl.50901

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Excitation of Poloidal standing Alfven waves through the drift resonance wave-particle interaction

Drift-resonance wave-particle interaction is a fundamental collisionless plasma process studied extensively in theory. Using cross-spectral analysis of electric field, magnetic field, and ion flux data from the Van Allen Probe (Radiation Belt Storm Probes) spacecraft, we present direct evidence identifying the generation of a fundamental mode standing poloidal wave through drift-resonance interactions in the inner magnetosphere. Intense azimuthal electric field (Eφ) oscillations as large as 10mV/m are observed, associated with radial magnetic field (Br) oscillations in the dawn-noon sector near but south of the magnetic equator at L\~5. The observed wave period, Eφ/Br ratio and the 90\textdegree phase lag between Br and Eφ are all consistent with fundamental mode standing Poloidal waves. Phase shifts between particle fluxes and wave electric fields clearly demonstrate a drift resonance with \~90 keV ring current ions. The estimated earthward gradient of ion phase space density provides a free energy source for wave generation through the drift-resonance instability. A similar drift-resonance process should occur ubiquitously in collisionless plasma systems. One specific example is the \textquotedblleftfishbone\textquotedblright instability in fusion plasma devices. In addition, our observations have important implications for the long-standing mysterious origin of Giant Pulsations.

Dai, L.; Takahashi, K; Wygant, J.; Chen, L.; Bonnell, J; Cattell, C.; Thaller, S.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C.; MacDowall, R.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Funsten, H.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/grl.50800

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Storm-induced energization of radiation belt electrons: Effect of wave obliquity

New Cluster statistics allow us to determine for the first time the variations of both the obliquity and intensity of lower-band chorus waves as functions of latitude and geomagnetic activity near L\~5. The portion of wave power in very oblique waves decreases during highly disturbed periods, consistent with increased Landau damping by inward-penetrating suprathermal electrons. Simple analytical considerations as well as full numerical calculations of quasi-linear diffusion rates demonstrate that early-time electron acceleration occurs in a regime of loss-limited energization. In this regime, the average wave obliquity plays a critical role in mitigating lifetime reduction as wave intensity increases with geomagnetic activity, suggesting that much larger energization levels should be reached during the early recovery phase of storms than during quiet time or moderate disturbances, the latter corresponding to stronger losses. These new effects should be included in realistic radiation belt simulations.

Artemyev, A.; Agapitov, O.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Zelenyi, L.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/grl.50837

magnetic storm; Radiation belts; wave-particle interactions

An unusual enhancement of low-frequency plasmaspheric hiss in the outer plasmasphere associated with substorm-injected electrons

Both plasmaspheric hiss and chorus waves were observed simultaneously by the two Van Allen Probes in association with substorm-injected energetic electrons. Probe A, located inside the plasmasphere in the postdawn sector, observed intense plasmaspheric hiss, whereas Probe B observed chorus waves outside the plasmasphere just before dawn. Dispersed injections of energetic electrons were observed in the dayside outer plasmasphere associated with significant intensification of plasmaspheric hiss at frequencies down to ~20 Hz, much lower than typical hiss wave frequencies of 100\textendash2000 Hz. In the outer plasmasphere, the upper energy of injected electrons agrees well with the minimum cyclotron resonant energy calculated for the lower cutoff frequency of the observed hiss, and computed convective linear growth rates indicate instability at the observed low frequencies. This suggests that the unusual low-frequency plasmaspheric hiss is likely to be amplified in the outer plasmasphere due to the injected energetic electrons.

Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Reeves, G.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Wygant, J.; Thaller, S.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/grl.50787

Van Allen Probes

Electron Acceleration in the Heart of the Van Allen Radiation Belts

The Van Allen radiation belts contain ultrarelativistic electrons trapped in Earth\textquoterights magnetic field. Since their discovery in 1958, a fundamental unanswered question has been how electrons can be accelerated to such high energies. Two classes of processes have been proposed: transport and acceleration of electrons from a source population located outside the radiation belts (radial acceleration) or acceleration of lower-energy electrons to relativistic energies in situ in the heart of the radiation belts (local acceleration). We report measurements from NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Radiation Belt Storm Probes that clearly distinguish between the two types of acceleration. The observed radial profiles of phase space density are characteristic of local acceleration in the heart of the radiation belts and are inconsistent with a predominantly radial acceleration process.

Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Henderson, M.; Morley, S.; Friedel, R.; Funsten, H.; Baker, D.; Kanekal, S.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Thorne, R.; Turner, D.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Larsen, B.; Niehof, J.;

Published by: Science      Published on: 07/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1126/science.1237743

Van Allen Probes

A Long-Lived Relativistic Electron Storage Ring Embedded in Earth\textquoterights Outer Van Allen Belt

Since their discovery more than 50 years ago, Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts have been considered to consist of two distinct zones of trapped, highly energetic charged particles. The outer zone is composed predominantly of megaelectron volt (MeV) electrons that wax and wane in intensity on time scales ranging from hours to days, depending primarily on external forcing by the solar wind. The spatially separated inner zone is composed of commingled high-energy electrons and very energetic positive ions (mostly protons), the latter being stable in intensity levels over years to decades. In situ energy-specific and temporally resolved spacecraft observations reveal an isolated third ring, or torus, of high-energy (>2 MeV) electrons that formed on 2 September 2012 and persisted largely unchanged in the geocentric radial range of 3.0 to ~3.5 Earth radii for more than 4 weeks before being disrupted (and virtually annihilated) by a powerful interplanetary shock wave passage.

Baker, D.; Kanekal, S.; Hoxie, V.; Henderson, M.; Li, X.; Spence, H.; Elkington, S.; Friedel, R.; Goldstein, J.; Hudson, M.; Reeves, G.; Thorne, R.; Kletzing, C.; Claudepierre, S.;

Published by: Science      Published on: 04/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1126/science.1233518

RBSP; Van Allen Probes


Wave acceleration of electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts

The Van Allen radiation belts1 are two regions encircling the Earth in which energetic charged particles are trapped inside the Earth\textquoterights magnetic field. Their properties vary according to solar activity2, 3 and they represent a hazard to satellites and humans in space4, 5. An important challenge has been to explain how the charged particles within these belts are accelerated to very high energies of several million electron volts. Here we show, on the basis of the analysis of a rare event where the outer radiation belt was depleted and then re-formed closer to the Earth6, that the long established theory of acceleration by radial diffusion is inadequate; the electrons are accelerated more effectively by electromagnetic waves at frequencies of a few kilohertz. Wave acceleration can increase the electron flux by more than three orders of magnitude over the observed timescale of one to two days, more than sufficient to explain the new radiation belt. Wave acceleration could also be important for Jupiter, Saturn and other astrophysical objects with magnetic fields.

Horne, Richard; Thorne, Richard; Shprits, Yuri; Meredith, Nigel; Glauert, Sarah; Smith, Andy; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Baker, Daniel; Engebretson, Mark; Posch, Jennifer; Spasojevic, Maria; Inan, Umran; Pickett, Jolene; Decreau, Pierrette;

Published by: Nature      Published on: 09/2005

YEAR: 2005     DOI: 10.1038/nature03939

Local Acceleration due to Wave-Particle Interaction

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