Found 39 entries in the Bibliography.
Showing entries from 1 through 39
Abstract A radial diffusion model directly driven by the solar wind is developed to reproduce MeV electron variations between L=2-12 (L is L* in this study) from October 2012 to April 2015. The radial diffusion coefficient, internal source rate, quick loss due to EMIC waves, and slow loss due to hiss waves are all expressed in terms of the solar wind speed, dynamic pressure, and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The model achieves a prediction efficiency (PE) of 0.45 at L=5 and 0.51 at L=4 after converting the electron phase space densities to differential fluxes and comparing with Van Allen Probes measurements of 2 MeV and 3 MeV electrons at L=5 and L=4, respectively. Machine learning techniques are used to tune parameters to get higher PE. By tuning parameters for every 60-day period, the model obtains PE values of 0.58 and 0.82 at L=5 and L=4, respectively. Inspired by these results, we divide the solar wind activity into three categories based on the condition of solar wind speed, IMF Bz, and dynamic pressure, and then tune these three sets of parameters to obtain the highest PE. This experiment confirms that the solar wind speed has the greatest influence on the electron flux variations, particularly at higher L, while the dynamic pressure has more influence at lower L. Also, the PE at L=4 is mostly higher than those at L=5, suggesting that the electron loss due to the magnetopause shadowing combined with the outward radial diffusion is not well captured in the model. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 05/2021
YEAR: 2021   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028988
Abstract We evaluate the location, extent and energy range of electron precipitation driven by ElectroMagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves using coordinated multi-satellite observations from near-equatorial and Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) missions. Electron precipitation was analyzed using the Focused Investigations of Relativistic Electron Burst Intensity, Range and Dynamics (FIREBIRD-II) CubeSats, in conjunction either with typical EMIC-driven precipitation signatures observed by Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES) or with in situ EMIC wave observations from Van Allen Probes. The multi-event analysis shows that electron precipitation occurred in a broad region near dusk (16–23 MLT), mostly confined to 3.5–7.5 L- shells. Each precipitation event occurred on localized radial scales, on average ∼0.3 L. Most importantly, FIREBIRD-II recorded electron precipitation from ∼200–300 keV to the expected ∼MeV energies for most cases, suggesting that EMIC waves can efficiently scatter a wide energy range of electrons.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 02/2021
YEAR: 2021   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL091564
Abstract The resonant interaction of energetic particles with plasma waves, such as chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves, plays a direct and crucial role in the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons that ultimately affect the dynamics of the radiation belts. In this study, we use the comprehensive wave data measurements made by the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science instruments on board the two Van Allen probes, to develop multi-parameter statistical chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models. The models of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves are presented as a function of combined geomagnetic activity (AE), solar wind velocity (V), and southward interplanetary magnetic field (Bs). The relatively smooth wave models reveal new features. Despite, the coupling between geomagnetic and solar wind parameters, the results show that each parameter still carries a sufficient amount of unique information to more accurately constrain the chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave intensities. The new wave models presented here highlight the importance of multi-parameter wave models, and can improve radiation belt modeling.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 12/2020
YEAR: 2020   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028403
Rapid radiation belt recovery following storm time depletion involves local acceleration of multi-MeV electrons in nonlinear interactions with VLF chorus waves. Previous studies of an apparent impenetrable barrier at L ~ 2.8 focused on diffusion and precipitation loss mechanisms for an explanation of the sharp reduction of multi-MeV electron fluxes earthward of L ~ 3. Van Allen Probes observations for cases when the plasmasphere is contracted earthward of L ~ 3 indicate that strong coherent signals from VLF transmitters can play significant roles in the suppression of nonlinear chorus wave growth earthward of L ~ 3. As a result, local nonlinear acceleration of hundreds of keV electrons to MeV energies does not occur in this region. During the recovery of the outer radiation belt when the plasmasphere is significantly contracted, the suppression of chorus wave growth and local acceleration by the action of the transmitter waves at the outer edge of the VLF bubble contributes to the sharp inner edge of the new MeV electron population and the formation of the impenetrable barrier at L ~ 2.8.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 09/2020
YEAR: 2020   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA027913
We extend our database of whistler mode chorus, based on data from seven satellites, by including ∼3 years of data from Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP)-A and RBSP-B and an additional ∼6 years of data from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS)-A, THEMIS-D, and THEMIS-E. The new database allows us to probe the near-equatorial region in detail, revealing new features. In the equatorial source region, |λm|<6°, strong wave power is most extensive in the 0.1–0.4fce bands in the region 21–11 magnetic local time (MLT) from the plasmapause out to L∗ = 8 and beyond, especially near dawn. At higher frequencies, in the 0.4–0.6fce frequency bands, strong wave power is more tightly confined, typically being restricted to the postmidnight sector in the region 4 Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 05/2020 YEAR: 2020   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL087311
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 05/2020
YEAR: 2020   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL087311
Whistler-mode hiss waves generally determine MeV electron lifetimes inside the plasmasphere. We use Van Allen Probes measurements to provide the first comprehensive statistical survey of plasmaspheric hiss-driven quasi-linear pitch-angle diffusion rates and lifetimes of MeV electrons as a function of L*, local time, and AE index, taking into account hiss power, electron plasma frequency to gyrofrequency ratio ωpe/Ωce, hiss frequency at peak power ωm, and cross correlations of these parameters. We find that during geomagnetically active periods with hiss observations, ωpe/Ωce and ωm decrease, leading to faster electron loss. We demonstrate that spatiotemporal variations of ωm and ωpe/Ωce with AE, together with wave power changes, significantly affect MeV electron loss, potentially leading to short lifetimes of less than 1 day. A parametric model of MeV electron lifetime driven by AE for L > 2.5 up to the plasmapause is developed and validated using Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) electron flux decay database.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 05/2020
YEAR: 2020   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL088052
In this paper, we present evolutions of the phase space density (PSD) spectra of ring current (RC) ions based on observations made by Van Allen Probe B during a geomagnetic storm on 23–24 August 2016. By analyzing PSD spectra ratios from the initial phase to the main phase of the storm, we find that during the main phase, RC ions with low magnetic moment μ values can penetrate deeper into the magnetosphere than can those with high μ values, and that the μ range of PSD enhancement meets the relationship: S(O+) > S(He+) > S(H+). Based on simultaneously observed ULF waves, theoretical calculation suggests that the radial transport of RC ions into the deep inner magnetosphere is caused by drift-bounce resonance interactions, and the efficiency of these resonance interactions satisfies the relationship: η(O+) > η(He+) > η(H+), leading to the differences in μ range of PSD enhancement for different RC ions. In the recovery phase, the observed decay rates for different RC ions meet the relationship: R(O+) > R(He+) > R(H+), in accordance with previous theoretical calculations, i.e., the charge exchange lifetime of O+ is shorter than those of H+ and He+.
Published by: Earth and Planetary Physics Published on: 03/2020
YEAR: 2020   DOI: 10.26464/epp2020019
Published by: Ring Current Investigations The Quest for Space Weather Prediction Published on:
YEAR: 2020   DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-815571-4.00006-8
Discovery of the Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts by instruments flown on Explorer 1 in 1958 was the first major discovery of the Space Age. The observation of distinct inner and outer zones of trapped megaelectron volt (MeV) particles, primarily protons at low altitude and electrons at high altitude, led to early models for source and loss mechanisms including Cosmic Ray Albedo Neutron Decay for inner zone protons, radial diffusion for outer zone electrons and loss to the atmosphere due to pitch angle scattering. This scattering lowers the mirror altitude for particles in their bounce motion parallel to the Earth\textquoterights magnetic field until they suffer collisional loss. A view of the belts as quasi-static inner and outer zones of energetic particles with different sources was modified by observations made during the Solar Cycle 22 maximum in solar activity over 1989\textendash1991. The dynamic variability of outer zone electrons was measured by the Combined Radiation Release and Effects Satellite launched in July 1990. This variability is caused by distinct types of heliospheric structure that vary with the solar cycle. The launch of the twin Van Allen Probes in August 2012 has provided much longer and more comprehensive measurements during the declining phase of Solar Cycle 24. Roughly half of moderate geomagnetic storms, determined by intensity of the ring current carried mostly by protons at hundreds of kiloelectron volts, produce an increase in trapped relativistic electron flux in the outer zone. Mechanisms for accelerating electrons of hundreds of electron volts stored in the tail region of the magnetosphere to MeVenergies in the trapping region are described in this review: prompt and diffusive radial transport and local acceleration driven by magnetospheric waves. Such waves also produce pitch angle scattering loss, as does outward radial transport, enhanced when the magnetosphere is compressed. While quasilinear simulations have been used to successfully reproduce many essential features of the radiation belt particle dynamics, nonlinear wave-particle interactions are found to be potentially important for causing more rapid particle acceleration or precipitation. The findings on the fundamental physics of the Van Allen radiation belts potentially provide insights into understanding energetic particle dynamics at other magnetized planets in the solar system, exoplanets throughout the universe, and in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. Computational radiation belt models have improved dramatically, particularly in the Van Allen Probes era, and assimilative forecasting of the state of the radiation belts has become more feasible. Moreover, machine learning techniques have been developed to specify and predict the state of the Van Allen radiation belts. Given the potential Space Weather impact of radiation belt variability on technological systems, these new radiation belt models are expected to play a critical role in our technological society in the future as much as meteorological models do today.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 11/2019
YEAR: 2019   DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025940
In the outer radiation belt, the acceleration and loss of high-energy electrons is largely controlled by wave-particle interactions. Quasilinear diffusion coefficients are an efficient way to capture the small-scale physics of wave-particle interactions due to magnetospheric wave modes such as plasmaspheric hiss. The strength of quasilinear diffusion coefficients as a function of energy and pitch angle depends on both wave parameters and plasma parameters such as ambient magnetic field strength, plasma number density, and composition. For plasmaspheric hiss in the magnetosphere, observations indicate large variations in the wave intensity and wave normal angle, but less is known about the simultaneous variability of the magnetic field and number density. We use in situ measurements from the Van Allen Probe mission to demonstrate the variability of selected factors that control the size and shape of pitch angle diffusion coefficients: wave intensity, magnetic field strength, and electron number density. We then compare with the variability of diffusion coefficients calculated individually from colocated and simultaneous groups of measurements. We show that the distribution of the plasmaspheric hiss diffusion coefficients is highly non-Gaussian with large variance and that the distributions themselves vary strongly across the three phase space bins studied. In most bins studied, the plasmaspheric hiss diffusion coefficients tend to increase with geomagnetic activity, but our results indicate that new approaches that include natural variability may yield improved parameterizations. We suggest methods like stochastic parameterization of wave-particle interactions could use variability information to improve modeling of the outer radiation belt.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 10/2019
YEAR: 2019   DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026401
Electron scattering by chorus waves is an important mechanism that can lead to fast electron acceleration and loss in the outer radiation belt. Making use of Van Allen Probes measurements, we present the first statistical survey of megaelectron volt electron pitch angle and energy quasi-linear diffusion rates by chorus waves as a function of L-shell, local time, and AE index, taking into account the local electron plasma frequency to gyrofrequency ratio ωpe/Ωce, chorus wave frequency, and resonance wave amplitude. We demonstrate that during disturbed periods, ωpe/Ωce strongly decreases in the night sector, leading to a faster electron loss but also a much faster electron energization in two distinct regions just above the plasmapause and at L ~ 3.5\textendash5.5. Spatiotemporal variations of ωpe/Ωce with AE shape the evolution of electron energization in the outer belt, sometimes leading to very short time scales for quasi-linear megaelectron volt electron acceleration in agreement with Van Allen Probes observations.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 05/2019
YEAR: 2019   DOI: 10.1029/2019GL083446
A statistical study was conducted of Earth\textquoterights radiation belt electron response to geomagnetic storms using NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes mission. Data for electrons with energies ranging from 30 keV to 6.3 MeV were included and examined as a function of L-shell, energy, and epoch time during 110 storms with SYM-H <=-50 nT during September 2012 to September 2017 (inclusive). The radiation belt response revealed clear energy and L-shell dependencies, with tens of keV electrons enhanced at all L-shells (2.5 <= L <= 6) in all storms during the storm commencement and main phase and then quickly decaying away during the early recovery phase, low hundreds of keV electrons enhanced at lower L-shells (~3 <= L <= ~4) in upward of 90\% of all storms and then decaying gradually during the recovery phase, and relativistic electrons throughout the outer belt showing main phase dropouts with subsequent and generally unpredictable levels of replenishment during the recovery phase. Compared to prestorm levels, electrons with energies >1 MeV also revealed a marked increase in likelihood of a depletion at all L-shells through the outer belt (3.5 <= L <= 6). Additional statistics were compiled revealing the storm time morphology of the radiation belts, confirming the aforementioned qualitative behavior. Considering storm drivers in the solar wind: storms driven by coronal mass ejection (CME) shocks/sheaths and CME ejecta only are most likely to result in a depletion of >1-MeV electrons throughout the outer belt, while storms driven by full CMEs and stream interaction regions are most likely to produce an enhancement of MeV electrons at lower (L < ~5) and higher (L > ~4.5) L-shells, respectively. CME sheaths intriguingly result in a distinct enhancement of ~1-MeV electrons around L~5.5, and on average, CME sheaths and stream interaction regions result in double outer belt structures.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 01/2019
YEAR: 2019   DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026066
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves have long been recognized to play a crucial role in the dynamic loss of ring current protons. While the field-aligned propagation approximation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves was widely used to quantify the scattering loss of ring current protons, in this study, we find that the wave normal distribution strongly affects the pitch angle scattering efficiency of protons. Increase of peak normal angle or angular width can considerably reduce the scattering rates of <=10 keV protons. For >10 keV protons, the field-aligned propagation approximation results in a pronounced underestimate of the scattering of intermediate equatorial pitch angle protons and overestimates the scattering of high equatorial pitch angle protons by orders of magnitude. Our results suggest that the wave normal distribution of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves plays an important role in the pitch angle evolution and scattering loss of ring current protons and should be incorporated in future global modeling of ring current dynamics.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 01/2019
YEAR: 2019   DOI: 10.1029/2018GL081550
In Earth\textquoterights inner magnetosphere, electromagnetic waves in the ultra-low frequency (ULF) range play an important role in accelerating and diffusing charged particles via drift resonance. In conventional drift-resonance theory, linearization is applied under the assumption of weak wave-particle energy exchange so particle trajectories are unperturbed. For ULF waves with larger amplitudes and/or durations, however, the conventional theory becomes inaccurate since particle trajectories are strongly perturbed. Here, we extend the drift-resonance theory into a nonlinear regime, to formulate nonlinear trapping of particles in a wave-carried potential well, and predict the corresponding observable signatures such as rolled-up structures in particle energy spectrum. After considering how this manifests in particle data with finite energy resolution, we compare the predicted signatures with Van Allen Probes observations. Their good agreement provides the first observational evidence for the occurrence of nonlinear drift resonance, highlighting the importance of nonlinear effects in magnetospheric particle dynamics under ULF waves.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 08/2018
YEAR: 2018   DOI: 10.1029/2018GL079038
Based on the wave and proton observations by Van Allen Probes A and B, we examined the effects of hot protons (0.01\textendash50 keV) on fast magnetosonic (MS) waves inside and outside the Earth\textquoterights plasmasphere. In the low-density plasma trough outside the plasmapause, the gyroresonance interactions between hot protons and MS waves not only cause the MS wave growth at some frequencies but also lead to the damping of MS waves at other frequencies, which depends on the proton phase space density gradient and the ambient plasma density. The gyroresonance of the observed hot protons cannot excite MS waves near the lower hybrid resonance frequency and even causes the MS wave damping. Thus, the frequencies of the observed MS waves outside the plasmapause are usually lower than the lower hybrid resonance frequency. In the high-density plasmasphere, the observed hot protons merely lead to the weak gyrodamping of MS waves. The persistent existence of lower band MS waves indicates that the weak gyrodamping effect of hot protons on MS waves is ignorable in the high-density plasmasphere.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 01/2018
YEAR: 2018   DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024676
This study examines multipoint observations during a conjunction between MMS and Van Allen Probes on 07 April 2016 in which a series of energetic particle injections occurred. With complementary data from THEMIS, Geotail, and LANL-GEO (16 spacecraft in total), we develop new insights on the nature of energetic particle injections associated with substorm activity. Despite this case involving only weak substorm activity (max. AE < 300 nT) during quiet geomagnetic conditions in steady, below-average solar wind, a complex series of at least six different electron injections was observed throughout the system. Intriguingly, only one corresponding ion injection was clearly observed. All ion and electron injections were observed at < 600 keV only. MMS reveals detailed substructure within the largest electron injection. A relationship between injected electrons with energy < 60 keV and enhanced whistler-mode chorus wave activity is also established from Van Allen Probes and MMS. Drift mapping using a simplified magnetic field model provides estimates of the dispersionless injection boundary locations as a function of universal time, magnetic local time, and L-shell. The analysis reveals that at least five electron injections, which were localized in magnetic local time, preceded a larger injection of both electrons and ions across nearly the entire nightside of the magnetosphere near geosynchronous orbit. The larger, ion and electron injection did not penetrate to L < 6.6, but several of the smaller, electron injections penetrated to L < 6.6. Due to the discrepancy between the number, penetration depth, and complexity of electron vs. ion injections, this event presents challenges to the current conceptual models of energetic particle injections.
Turner, D.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Clemmons, J.; Jaynes, A.; Leonard, T.; Baker, D.; Cohen, I.; Gkioulidou, M.; Ukhorskiy, A; Mauk, B.; Gabrielse, C.; Angelopoulos, V.; Strangeway, R.; Kletzing, C.; Le Contel, O.; Spence, H.; Torbert, R.; Burch, J.; Reeves, G.;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 09/2017
YEAR: 2017   DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024554
Up until recently, signatures of the ultrarelativistic electron loss driven by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt have been limited to direct or indirect measurements of electron precipitation or the narrowing of normalized pitch angle distributions in the heart of the belt. In this study, we demonstrate additional observational evidence of ultrarelativistic electron loss that can be driven by resonant interaction with EMIC waves. We analyzed the profiles derived from Van Allen Probe particle data as a function of time and three adiabatic invariants between 9 October and 29 November 2012. New local minimums in the profiles are accompanied by the narrowing of normalized pitch angle distributions and ground-based detection of EMIC waves. Such a correlation may be indicative of ultrarelativistic electron precipitation into the Earth\textquoterights atmosphere caused by resonance with EMIC waves.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 09/2017
YEAR: 2017   DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024485
Bounce-resonant interactions with magnetospheric waves have been proposed as important contributing mechanisms for scattering near-equatorially mirroring electrons by violating the second adiabatic invariant associated with the electron bounce motion along a geomagnetic field line. This study demonstrates that low-frequency plasmaspheric hiss with significant wave power below 100 Hz can bounce-resonate efficiently with radiation belt electrons. By performing quantitative calculations of pitch-angle scattering rates, we show that low-frequency hiss induced bounce-resonant scattering of electrons has a strong dependence on equatorial pitch-angle αeq. For electrons with αeq close to 90\textdegree, the timescale associated with bounce resonance scattering can be comparable to or even less than 1 hour. Cyclotron- and Landau-resonant interactions between low-frequency hiss and electrons are also investigated for comparisons. It is found that while the bounce and Landau resonances are responsible for the diffusive transport of near-equatorially mirroring electrons to lower αeq, pitch-angle scattering by cyclotron resonance could take over to further diffuse electrons into the atmosphere. Bounce resonance provides a more efficient pitch-angle scattering mechanism of relativistic (>= 1 MeV) electrons than Landau resonance due to the stronger scattering rates and broader resonance coverage of αeq, thereby demonstrating that bounce resonance scattering by low-frequency hiss can contribute importantly to the evolution of the electron pitch-angle distribution and the loss of radiation belt electrons.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 09/2017
YEAR: 2017   DOI: 10.1002/2017GL075104
In September 2014 an unusually long-lasting (≳10 days) ultra-relativistic electron flux depletion occurred in the outer radiation belt despite ongoing solar wind forcing. We simulate this period using a ULF wave radial diffusion model, driven by observed ULF wave power coupled to flux variations at the outer boundary at L* = 5, including empirical electron loss models due to chorus and hiss wave scattering. Our results show that unexplained rapid main phase loss, that depletes the belt within hours, is essential to explain the observations. Such ultra-relativistic electron extinction decouples the prestorm and poststorm fluxes, revealing the subsequent belt dynamics to be surprisingly independent of prestorm flux. However, once this extinction is included, ULF wave transport and coupling to the outer boundary explain the extended depletion event and also the eventual flux recovery. Neither local acceleration nor ongoing losses from hiss or chorus wave scattering to the atmosphere are required.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 03/2017
YEAR: 2017   DOI: 10.1002/2017GL072811
We present observations from the Van Allen Probes spacecraft that identify a region of intense whistler mode activity within a large density enhancement outside of the plasmasphere. We speculate that this density enhancement is part of a remnant plasmaspheric plume, with the observed wave being driven by a weakly anisotropic electron injection that drifted into the plume and became nonlinearly unstable to whistler emission. Particle measurements indicate that a significant fraction of thermal (<100 eV) electrons within the plume were subject to Landau acceleration by these waves, an effect that is naturally explained by whistler emission within a gradient and high-density ducting inside a density enhancement.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 03/2017
YEAR: 2017   DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022219
We present observations from the Van Allen Probes spacecraft that identify an region of intense whistler-mode activity within a large density enhancement outside of the plasmasphere. We speculate that this density enhancement is part of a remnant plasmaspheric plume, with the observed wave being driven by a weakly anisotropic electron injection that drifted into the plume and became non-linearly unstable to whistler emission. Particle measurements indicate that a significant fraction of thermal (<100 eV) electrons within the plume were subject to Landau acceleration by these waves, an effect that is naturally explained by whistler emission within a gradient and high-density ducting inside a density enhancement.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 02/2017
YEAR: 2017   DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022219
Prompt recovery of MeV (millions of electron Volts) electron populations in the poststorm core of the outer terrestrial radiation belt involves local acceleration of a seed population of energetic electrons in interactions with VLF chorus waves. Electron interactions during the generation of VLF rising tones are strongly nonlinear, such that a fraction of the relativistic electrons at resonant energies are trapped by waves, leading to significant nonadiabatic energy exchange. Through detailed examination of VLF chorus and electron fluxes observed by Van Allen Probes, we investigate the efficiency of nonlinear processes for acceleration of electrons to MeV energies. We find through subpacket analysis of chorus waveforms that electrons with initial energy of hundreds of keV to 3 MeV can be accelerated by 50 keV\textendash200 keV in resonant interactions with a single VLF rising tone on a time scale of 10\textendash100 ms.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 01/2017
YEAR: 2017   DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023429
Electron precipitation down to the atmosphere due to wave-particle scattering in the magnetosphere contributes significantly to the auroral ionospheric conductivity. In order to obtain the auroral conductivity in global MHD models that are incapable of capturing kinetic physics in the magnetosphere, MHD parameters are often used to estimate electron precipitation flux for the conductivity calculation. Such an MHD approach, however, lacks self-consistency in representing the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes. In this study we improve the coupling processes in global models with a more physical method. We calculate the physics-based electron precipitation from the ring current and map it to the ionospheric altitude for solving the ionospheric electrodynamics. In particular, we use the BATS-R-US (Block Adaptive Tree Scheme-Roe type-Upstream) MHD model coupled with the kinetic ring current model RAM-SCB (Ring current-Atmosphere interaction Model with Self-Consistent Magnetic field (B)) that solves pitch angle-dependent electron distribution functions, to study the global circulation dynamics during the 25\textendash26 January 2013 storm event. Since the electron precipitation loss is mostly governed by wave-particle resonant scattering in the magnetosphere, we further investigate two loss methods of specifying electron precipitation loss associated with wave-particle interactions: (1) using pitch angle diffusion coefficients Dαα(E,α) determined from the quasi-linear theory, with wave spectral and plasma density obtained from statistical observations (named as \textquotedblleftdiffusion coefficient method\textquotedblright) and (2) using electron lifetimes τ(E) independent on pitch angles inferred from the above diffusion coefficients (named as \textquotedblleftlifetime method\textquotedblright). We found that both loss methods demonstrate similar temporal evolution of the trapped ring current electrons, indicating that the impact of using different kinds of loss rates is small on the trapped electron population. However, for the precipitated electrons, the lifetime method hardly captures any precipitation in the large L shell (i.e., 4 < L < 6.5) region, while the diffusion coefficient method produces much better agreement with NOAA/POES measurements, including the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of electron precipitation in the region from the premidnight through the dawn to the dayside. Further comparisons of the precipitation energy flux to DMSP observations indicates that the new physics-based precipitation approach using diffusion coefficients for the ring current electron loss can explain the diffuse electron precipitation in the dawn sector, such as the enhanced precipitation flux at auroral latitudes and flux drop near the subauroral latitudes, but the traditional MHD approach largely overestimates the precipitation flux at lower latitudes.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 09/2016
YEAR: 2016   DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022585
To understand the role of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in determining the temporal features of pulsating proton aurora (PPA) via wave-particle interactions at subauroral latitudes, high-time-resolution (1/8 s) images of proton-induced N2+ emissions were recorded using a new electron multiplying charge-coupled device camera, along with related Pc1 pulsations on the ground. The observed Pc1 pulsations consisted of successive rising-tone elements with a spacing for each element of 100 s and subpacket structures, which manifest as amplitude modulations with a period of a few tens of seconds. In accordance with the temporal features of the Pc1 pulsations, the auroral intensity showed a similar repetition period of 100 s and an unpredicted fast modulation of a few tens of seconds. These results indicate that PPA is generated by pitch angle scattering, nonlinearly interacting with Pc1/EMIC waves at the magnetic equator.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 08/2016
YEAR: 2016   DOI: 10.1002/2016GL070008
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are thought to be important drivers of energetic electron losses from the outer radiation belt through precipitation into the atmosphere. While the theoretical possibility of pitch angle scattering-driven losses from these waves has been recognized for more than four decades, there have been limited experimental precipitation observations to support this concept. We have combined satellite-based observations of the characteristics of EMIC waves, with satellite and ground-based observations of the EMIC-induced electron precipitation. In a detailed case study, supplemented by an additional four examples, we are able to constrain for the first time the location, size, and energy range of EMIC-induced electron precipitation inferred from coincident precipitation data and relate them to the EMIC wave frequency, wave power, and ion band of the wave as measured in situ by the Van Allen Probes. These observations will better constrain modeling into the importance of EMIC wave-particle interactions.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 11/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/grl.v42.2210.1002/2015GL066581
Giant pulsations (Pgs) are a special class of oscillations recognized in ground magnetometer records as exhibiting highly regular sinusoidal waveforms in the east-west component with periods around 100s. Previous statistical studies showed that Pgs occur almost exclusively on the morningside with peak occurrence in the postmidnight sector. In this paper, we present observations of Pgs extending to the afternoonside, using data from the GOES13 and 15 geostationary satellites and multiple ground magnetometers located in North America. For a long-lasting event on 29 February 2012, which spanned \~08\textendash18h magnetic local time, we show that basic Pg properties did not change with the local time, although the period of the pulsations was longer at later local time due to increasing mass loading. There is evidence that the Pgs resulted from fundamental poloidal mode standing Alfv\ en waves, both on the morning and afternoonsides. Oscillations of energetic particles associated with the field oscillations exhibited an energy-dependent phase, which has previously been reported and explained by drift resonance. A statistical analysis of the ground magnetic field data (L = 3.8\textendash7.4) covering 2008\textendash2013 confirms that afternoon Pgs are not unusual. We identified a total of 105 Pg events (about 70\% (30\%) of the events occurred during non-storm (late storm recovery) periods), 31 of which occurred on the afternoonside. The afternoon Pgs occur under solar wind and geomagnetic conditions that are similar to the morning Pgs, but the afternoon Pgs tend to have short durations and occur frequently in winter instead of around spring and fall equinoxes that are favored by the morning Pgs.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 10/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021592
Plasmaspheric hiss plays an important role in controlling the overall structure and dynamics of the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts. The interaction of plasmaspheric hiss with radiation belt electrons is commonly evaluated using diffusion codes, which rely on statistical models of wave observations that may not accurately reproduce the instantaneous global wave distribution, or the limited in-situ satellite wave measurements from satellites. This paper evaluates the performance and limitations of a novel technique capable of inferring wave amplitudes from low-altitude electron flux observations from the POES spacecraft, which provide extensive coverage in L-shell and MLT. We found that, within its limitations, this technique could potentially be used to build a dynamic global model of the plasmaspheric hiss wave intensity. The technique is validated by analyzing the conjunctions between the POES spacecraft and the Van Allen Probes from September 2012 to June 2014. The technique performs well for moderate-to-strong hiss activity (>=30 pT) with sufficiently high electron fluxes. The main source of these limitations is the number of counts of energetic electrons measured by the POES spacecraft capable of resonating with hiss waves. For moderate-to-strong hiss events, the results show that the wave amplitudes from the EMFISIS instruments onboard the Van Allen Probes are well reproduced by the POES technique, which provides more consistent estimates than the parameterized statistical hiss wave model based on CRRES data.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 10/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021148
This study is focused on understanding the coupling between different electron populations in the inner magnetosphere and the various physical processes that determine evolution of electron fluxes at different energies. Observations during the March 17, 2013 storm and simulations with a newly developed Versatile Electron Radiation Belt-4D (VERB-4D) are presented. Analysis of the drift trajectories of the energetic and relativistic electrons shows that electron trajectories at transitional energies with a first invariant on the scale of ~100MeV/G may resemble ring current or relativistic electron trajectories depending on the level of geomagnetic activity. Simulations with the VERB-4D code including convection, radial diffusion, and energy diffusion are presented. Sensitivity simulations including various physical processes show how different acceleration mechanisms contribute to the energization of energetic electrons at transitional energies. In particular, the range of energies where inward transport is strongly influenced by both convection and radial diffusion are studied. The results of the 4D simulations are compared to Van Allen Probes observations at a range of energies including source, seed, and core populations of the energetic and relativistic electrons in the inner magnetosphere.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 09/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/2015GL065230
Most theoretical wave models require the power in the wave magnetic field in order to determine the effect of chorus waves on radiation belt electrons. However, researchers typically use the cold plasma dispersion relation to approximate the magnetic wave power when only electric field data are available. In this study, the validity of using the cold plasma dispersion relation in this context is tested using Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) observations of both the electric and magnetic spectral intensities in the chorus wave band (0.1\textendash0.9 fce). Results from this study indicate that the calculated wave intensity is least accurate during periods of enhanced wave activity. For observed wave intensities >10-3 nT2, using the cold plasma dispersion relation results in an underestimate of the wave intensity by a factor of 2 or greater 56\% of the time over the full chorus wave band, 60\% of the time for lower band chorus, and 59\% of the time for upper band chorus. Hence, during active periods, empirical chorus wave models that are reliant on the cold plasma dispersion relation will underestimate chorus wave intensities to a significant degree, thus causing questionable calculation of wave-particle resonance effects on MeV electrons.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 02/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020808
This paper is devoted to the systematic study of electron lifetimes from narrowband wave-particle interactions within the plasmasphere. It relies on a new formulation of the bounce-averaged quasi-linear pitch angle diffusion coefficients parameterized by a single frequency, ω, and wave normal angle, θ. We first show that the diffusion coefficients scale with ω/Ωce, where Ωce is the equatorial electron gyrofrequency, and that maximal pitch angle diffusion occurs along the line α0 = π/2\textendashθ, where α0 is the equatorial pitch angle. Lifetimes are computed for L shell values in the range [1.5, 3.5] and energies, E, in the range [0.1, 6] MeV as a function of frequency and wave normal angle. The maximal pitch angle associated with a given lifetime is also given, revealing the frequencies that are able to scatter nearly equatorial pitch angle particles. The lifetimes are relatively independent of frequency and wave normal angle after taking into consideration the scaling law, with a weak dependence on wave normal angle up to 60\textendash70\textdegree, increasing to infinity as the wave normal angle approaches the resonance cone. We identify regions in the (L, E) plane in which a single wave type (hiss, VLF transmitters, or lightning-generated waves) is dominant relative to the others. We find that VLF waves dominate the lifetime for 0.2\textendash0.4 MeV at L ~ 2 and for 0.5\textendash0.8 MeV at L ~ 1.5, while hiss dominates the lifetime for 2\textendash3 MeV at L = 3\textendash3.5. The influence of lightning-generated waves is always mixed with the other two and cannot be easily differentiated. Limitations of the method for addressing effects due to restricted latitude or pitch angle domains are also discussed. Finally, for each (L, E) we search for the minimum lifetime and find that the optimal frequency that produces this lifetime increases as L diminishes. Restricting the search to very oblique waves, which could be emitted during the Demonstration and Science Experiments satellite mission, we find that the optimal frequency is always close to 0.16Ωce.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 11/2014
YEAR: 2014   DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020217
We present in situ observations of a shock-induced substorm-like event on 13 April 2013 observed by the newly launched Van Allen twin probes. Substorm-like electron injections with energy of 30\textendash500 keV were observed in the region from L\~5.2 to 5.5 immediately after the shock arrival (followed by energetic electron drift echoes). Meanwhile, the electron flux was clearly and strongly varying on the ULF wave time scale. It is found that both toroidal and poloidal mode ULF waves with a period of 150 s emerged following the magnetotail magnetic field reconfiguration after the interplanetary (IP) shock passage. The poloidal mode is more intense than the toroidal mode. The 90\textdegree phase shift between the poloidal mode Br and Ea suggests the standing poloidal waves in the Northern Hemisphere. Furthermore, the energetic electron flux modulations indicate that the azimuthal wave number is \~14. Direct evidence of drift resonance between the injected electrons and the excited poloidal ULF wave has been obtained. The resonant energy is estimated to be between 150 keV and 230 keV. Two possible scenaria on ULF wave triggering are discussed: vortex-like flow structure-driven field line resonance and ULF wave growth through drift resonance. It is found that the IP shock may trigger intense ULF wave and energetic electron behavior at L\~3 to 6 on the nightside, while the time profile of the wave is different from dayside cases.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 10/2014
YEAR: 2014   DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020023
Using a Hamiltonian approach, we quantify the energization threshold of electrons interacting with radiation belts\textquoteright double layers discovered by Mozer et al. (2013). We find that double layers with electric field amplitude E0 ranging between 10 and 100 mV/m and spatial scales of the order of few Debye lengths are very efficient in energizing electrons with initial velocities v|| <= vth to 1 keV levels but are unable to energize electrons with E >= 100 keV. Our results indicate that the localized electric field associated with the double layers are unlikely to generate a seed population of 100 keV necessary for a plethora of relativistic acceleration mechanisms and additional transport to higher energetic levels.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 10/2014
YEAR: 2014   DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020236
We report observations of very low frequency (VLF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) chorus waves taken during the ELF/VLF Campaign observation with High-resolution Aurora Imaging Network (VLF-CHAIN) of 17\textendash25 February 2012 at subauroral latitudes at Athabasca (L=4.3), Canada. ELF/VLF waves were measured continuously with a sampling rate of 100 kHz to monitor daily variations in ELF/VLF emissions and derive their detailed structures. We found quasiperiodic (QP) emissions whose repetition period changes rapidly within a period of 1 h without corresponding magnetic pulsations. QP emissions showed positive correlation between amplitude and frequency sweep rate, similarly to rising-tone elements. We found an event of nearly simultaneous enhancements of QP emissions and Pc1/electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave intensities, suggesting that the temperature anisotropy of electrons and ions developed simultaneously at the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere. We also found QP emissions whose intensity suddenly increased in association with storm sudden commencement without changing their frequency. Falling-tone ELF/VLF emissions were observed with their rate of frequency change varying from 0.7 to 0.05 kHz/s over 10 min. Bursty-patch emissions in the lower and upper frequency bands are often observed during magnetically disturbed periods. Clear systematic correlation between these various ELF/VLF emissions and cosmic noise absorption was not obtained throughout the campaign period. These observations indicate several previously unknown features of ELF/VLF emissions in subauroral latitudes and demonstrate the importance of continuous measurements for monitoring temporal variations in these emissions.
Shiokawa, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Yu; Ieda, Akimasa; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Nomura, Reiko; Lee, Sungeun; Sunagawa, Naoki; Miyashita, Yukinaga; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Ishizaka, Kazumasa; Yagitani, Satoshi; Kataoka, Ryuho; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Schofield, Ian; Connors, Martin;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 09/2014
YEAR: 2014   DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.910.1002/2014JA020161
In the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts the flux of relativistic electrons is highly variable, sometimes changing by orders of magnitude within a few hours. Since energetic electrons can damage satellites it is important to understand the processes driving these changes and, ultimately, to develop forecasts of the energetic electron population. One approach is to use three-dimensional diffusion models, based on a Fokker-Planck equation. Here we describe a model where the phase-space density is set to zero at the outer L* boundary, simulating losses to the magnetopause, using recently published chorus diffusion coefficients for 1.5<=L*<=10. The value of the phase-space density on the minimum-energy boundary is determined from a recently published, solar wind-dependent, statistical model. Our simulations show that an outer radiation belt can be created by local acceleration of electrons from a very soft energy spectrum without the need for a source of electrons from inward radial transport. The location in L* of the peaks in flux for these steady state simulations is energy dependent and moves earthward with increasing energy. Comparisons between the model and data from the CRRES spacecraft are shown; flux dropouts are reproduced in the model by the increased outward radial diffusion that occurs during storms. Including the inward movement of the magnetopause in the model has little additional effect on the results. Finally, the location of the low-energy boundary is shown to be important for accurate modeling of observations.
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 09/2014
YEAR: 2014   DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.910.1002/2014JA020092
We adopt a canonical approach to describe the stochastic motion of relativistic belt electrons and their scattering into the loss cone by nonlinear EMIC waves. The estimated rate of scattering is sufficient to account for the rate and intensity of bursty electron precipitation. This interaction is shown to result in particle scattering into the loss cone, forming \~10 s microbursts of precipitating electrons. These dynamics can account for the statistical correlations between processes of energization, pitch angle scattering, and relativistic electron precipitation events, that are manifested on large temporal scales of the order of the diffusion time \~tens of minutes.
Published by: Physics of Plasmas Published on: 08/2014
YEAR: 2014   DOI: 10.1063/1.4892185
Inner belt energetic protons are a hindrance to development of space technologies. The emission of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves from spaceborne transmitters has been proposed as a way to solve this problem. The interaction between particles and narrowband emissions has been typically studied using nonlinear test particle simulations. We show that this formulation results in a random walk of the inner belt protons in velocity space. In this paper we compute bounce-averaged pitch angle diffusion rates from test particle simulations and compare them to those of quasi-linear theory for quasi-monochromatic EMIC waves interacting with inner belt protons. We find that the quasi-linear solution is not sensitive to the frequency bandwidth for narrow distributions. Bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients from both approaches are in good agreement for all energies and pitch angles. The interaction with inner belt protons, therefore, can be addressed using quasi-linear diffusion codes, which allows faster exploration of parameter space.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 09/2013
YEAR: 2013   DOI: 10.1002/grl.50925
New Cluster statistics allow us to determine for the first time the variations of both the obliquity and intensity of lower-band chorus waves as functions of latitude and geomagnetic activity near L\~5. The portion of wave power in very oblique waves decreases during highly disturbed periods, consistent with increased Landau damping by inward-penetrating suprathermal electrons. Simple analytical considerations as well as full numerical calculations of quasi-linear diffusion rates demonstrate that early-time electron acceleration occurs in a regime of loss-limited energization. In this regime, the average wave obliquity plays a critical role in mitigating lifetime reduction as wave intensity increases with geomagnetic activity, suggesting that much larger energization levels should be reached during the early recovery phase of storms than during quiet time or moderate disturbances, the latter corresponding to stronger losses. These new effects should be included in realistic radiation belt simulations.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 08/2013
YEAR: 2013   DOI: 10.1002/grl.50837
1] The energization and loss processes for energetic radiation belt electrons are not yet well understood. Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves have been correlated with both enhancement in outer zone radiation belt electron flux and modulation of precipitation loss to the atmosphere. This study considers the effects of ULF waves in the Pc-4 to Pc-5 period range (45 s\textendash600 s) on electron loss to the atmosphere on a time scale of several minutes. Global simulations using magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model fields as drivers provide a valuable tool for studying the dynamics of these \~MeV energetic particles. ACE satellite measurements of the MHD solar wind parameters are used as the upstream boundary condition for the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) 3D MHD code calculation of fields, used to drive electrons in a 3D test particle simulation that keeps track of attributes like energy, pitch-angle and L-shell. The simulation results are compared with balloon observations obtained during the January 21, 2005 CME-shock event. Rapid loss of 20 keV to 1.5 MeV electrons was detected by balloon-borne measurements ofbremsstrahlungX-rays during the MINIS campaign following the shock arrival at Earth. The global precipitation response of the radiation belts to this CME-shock driven storm was investigated focusing on their interaction with ULF waves. A primary cause for the precipitation modulation seen in both the simulation and the MINIS campaign is suggested based on the lowering of mirror points due to compressional magnetic field oscillations.
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 11/2012
YEAR: 2012   DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053790
The primary scientific objective of the Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) is to understand the processes responsible for scattering relativistic electrons into Earth\textquoterights atmosphere. BARREL is the first Living with a Star Geospace Mission of Opportunity, and will consist of two Antarctic balloon campaigns conducted in the 2012 and 2013 Austral summer seasons. During each campaign, a total of 20 small View the MathML source(\~20kg) balloon payloads will be launched, providing multi-point measurements of electron precipitation in conjunction with in situ measurements from the two RBSP spacecraft, scheduled to launch in May 2012. In this paper we outline the scientific objectives of BARREL, highlighting a few key science questions that will be addressed by BARREL in concert with other ILWS missions in order to understand loss processes in the radiation belts. A summary of observations from the 2008/2009 BARREL test flight is also presented. Electron precipitation was observed during a geomagnetic storm on February 14\textendash18, 2009. This storm, though relatively weak (Dst=-36 nT), was remarkably effective in increasing the trapped electron population.
Published by: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics Published on: 07/2011
YEAR: 2011   DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.006