• Clicking on the title will open a new window with all details of the bibliographic entry.
  • Clicking on the DOI link will open a new window with the original bibliographic entry from the publisher.
  • Clicking on a single author will show all publications by the selected author.
  • Clicking on a single keyword, will show all publications by the selected keyword.

Found 84 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 50


Can Earth’s magnetotail plasma sheet produce a source of relativistic electrons for the radiation belts?

Abstract Simultaneous observations from Van Allen Probes (RBSP) in Earth’s outer radiation belt (∼4-6 RE) and Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) in the magnetotail plasma sheet at >20 RE geocentric distance are used to compare relative levels of relativistic electron phase space density (PSD) for constant values of the first adiabatic invariant, M. We present new evidence from two events showing: i) at times, there is sufficient PSD in the central plasma sheet to provide a source of >1 MeV electrons into the outer belt; ii) the most intense levels of relativistic electrons are not accelerated in the solar wind or transported from the inner magnetosphere and thus must be accelerated rapidly (within ∼minutes or less) and efficiently across a broad region of the magnetotail itself; and iii) the highest intensity relativistic electrons observed by MMS were confined within only the central plasma sheet. The answer to the title question here is: yes, it can, however whether Earth’s plasma sheet actually does provide a source of several 100s keV to >1 MeV electrons to the outer belt and how often it does so remain important outstanding questions.

Turner, Drew; Cohen, Ian; Michael, Adam; Sorathia, Kareem; Merkin, Slava; Mauk, Barry; Ukhorskiy, Sasha; Murphy, Kyle; Gabrielse, Christine; Boyd, Alexander; Fennell, Joseph; Blake, Bernard; Claudepierre, Seth; Drozdov, Alexander; Jaynes, Allison; Ripoll, Jean-Francois; Reeves, Geoffrey;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 09/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Radiation belts; plasma sheet; Particle acceleration; relativistic electrons; inner magnetosphere; magnetotail; Van Allen Probes

Field-Aligned Electron Density Distribution of the Inner Magnetosphere Inferred from Coordinated Observations of Arase and Van Allen Probes

Plain Language Summary The plasmasphere is the region filled with cold, dense ionized gas in geospace. The ionized gas mainly consists in protons, helium ions, oxygen ions and electrons, which come from Earth’s ionosphere and fill in magnetic flux tubes. The density distribution of the ionized gas along the flux tube provides important information to understand how the ions and electrons have been supplied from the ionosphere. Many satellites fly in the equatorial plane, hence, do not provide information on the electron density along the field. The RBSP and the Arase satellites have different inclinations and sometimes they simultaneously fly near the equator and off the equator on the same magnetic field line. Using electron densities observed by these satellites during the 7 Sep 2017 storm, we successfully estimated the electron density distribution along of the field lines inside the partially refilled plasmasphere, outside of the plasmasphere and in the tail-like structure called a plume.

Obana, Yuki; Miyashita, Yukinaga; Maruyama, Naomi; Shinbori, Atsuki; Nosé, Masahito; Shoji, Masafumi; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Matsuda, Shoya; Matsuoka, Ayako; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Shinohara, Iku; Kurth, William; Smith, Charles; MacDowall, Robert;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 09/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

plasmasphere; inner magnetosphere; Arase satellite; Van Allen Probes satellite; simultaneous observation; Geomagnetic storm; Van Allen Probes

Superposed Epoch Analysis of Dispersionless Particle Injections Inside Geosynchronous Orbit

AbstractDispersionless injections, involving sudden, simultaneous flux enhancements of energetic particles over some broad range of energy, are a characteristic signature of the particles that are experiencing a significant acceleration and/or rapid inward transport at the leading edge of injections. We have statistically analyzed data from Van Allen Probes (also known as RBSP ) to reveal where the proton (H+) and electron (e–) dispersionless injections occur preferentially inside geosynchronous orbit and how they develop depending on local magnetic field changes. By surveying measurements of RBSP during four tail seasons in 2012–2019, we have identified 171 dispersionless injection events. Most of the events, which are accompanied by local magnetic dipolarizations, occur in the dusk-to-midnight sector, regardless of particle species. Out of the selected 171 events, 75 events exhibit dispersionless injections of both H+ and e–, which occur within 2 minutes of each other. With only three exceptions, the both-species injection events are further divided into two main subgroups: One is the H+ preceding e– events with a time offset of tens of seconds between H+ and e–, and the other the concurrent H+ and e– events without any time offset. Our superposed epoch results raise the intriguing possibility that the presence or absence of a pronounced negative dip in the local magnetic field ahead of the concurrent sharp dipolarization determines which of the two subgroups will occur. The difference between the two subgroups may be explained in terms of the dawn-dusk asymmetry of localized diamagnetic perturbations ahead of a deeply-penetrating dipolarization front.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Motoba, T.; Ohtani, S.; Gkioulidou, M.; Ukhorskiy, A; Lanzerotti, L.; Claudepierre, S.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Dispersionless injections; substorms; inner magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes

The Roles of the Magnetopause and Plasmapause in Storm-Time ULF Wave Power Enhancements

Abstract Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves play a crucial role in transporting and coupling energy within the magnetosphere. During geomagnetic storms, dayside magnetospheric ULF wave power is highly variable with strong enhancements that are dominated by elevated solar wind driving. However, the radial distribution of ULF wave power is complex - controlled interdependently by external solar wind driving and the internal magnetospheric structuring. We conducted a statistical analysis of observed storm-time ULF wave power from the Van Allen Probes spacecraft within 2012 - 2016. Focusing on the dayside (06 < Magnetic Local Time ≤ 15), we observe large enhancements across 3 < L < 6 and a steep L dependence during the main phase. We consider how accounting for concurrent magnetopause and plasmapause locations may reduce statistical variability and improve parameterisation of spatial trends over and above using the L value. Ordering storm time ULF wave power by L provides the weakest dependences from those considered, whereas ordering by distance from the magnetopause is more effective. We also explore dependences on local plasma density and find that spatially localised ULF wave power enhancements are confined within high density patches in the afternoon sector (likely plasmaspheric plumes). The results have critical implications for empirical models of ULF wave power and radial diffusion coefficients. We highlight the necessity of improved characterisation of the highly distorted storm-time cold plasma density distribution, in order to more accurately predict ULF wave power.

Sandhu, J.; Rae, I.; Staples, F.; Hartley, D.; Walach, M.-T.; Elsden, T.; Murphy, K.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

ULF waves; Geomagnetic storms; Van Allen Probes; radial diffusion; inner magnetosphere; plasmasphere

A Multi-instrument Study of a Dipolarization Event in the Inner Magnetosphere

Abstract A dipolarization of the background magnetic field was observed during a conjunction of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft and Van Allen Probe B on 22 September 2018. The spacecraft were located in the inner magnetosphere at L ∼ 6 − 7 just before midnight magnetic local time (MLT). The radial separation between MMS and Probe B was ∼ 1RE. Gradual dipolarization or an increase of the northward component BZ of the background field occurred on a timescale of minutes. Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace (ERG) located 0.5 MLT eastward at a similar L shell also measured a gradual increase. The spatial scale was of the order of 1 RE. On top of that, MMS and Probe B measured BZ increases, and a decrease in one case, on a timescale of seconds, accompanied by large electric fields with amplitudes > several tens of mV/m. Spatial scale lengths were of the order of the ion inertial length and the ion gyroradius. The inertial term in the momentum equation and the Hall term in the generalized Ohm’s law were sometimes non-negligible. These small-scale variations are discussed in terms of the ballooning/interchange instability (BICI) and kinetic Alfvén waves among others. It is inferred that physics of multiple scales was involved in the dynamics of this dipolarization event. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Matsui, H.; Torbert, R.; Spence, H.; Argall, M.; Cohen, I.; Cooper, M.; Ergun, R.; Farrugia, C.; Fennell, J.; Fuselier, S.; Gkioulidou, M.; Khotyaintsev, Yu.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Matsuoka, A.; Russell, C.; Shoji, M.; Strangeway, R.; Turner, D.; Vaith, H.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Dipolarization; inner magnetosphere; Multiple Scale Dynamics; Van Allen Probes

Nodal Structure of Toroidal Standing Alfvén Waves and Its Implication for Field Line Mass Density Distribution

Abstract We have conducted a statistical study of toroidal mode standing Alfvén waves detected by the Van Allen Probes spacecraft in the dayside inner magnetosphere, with an emphasis on the nodal structure of the fundamental through fifth harmonics. We developed a technique to accurately assign harmonic mode numbers to peaks in the power spectra of the electric (Eν) and magnetic (Bϕ) field components of toroidal waves and then determine the spectral intensities of Eν and Bϕ and the coherence and cross-phase between these field components for each harmonic. The magnetic latitude (MLAT) dependence of these quantities was statistically examined to determine the location of the nodes. In addition to the equatorial nodes located close to the equator (MLAT = 0), we identified several nodes away from the equator within the MLAT range from − 20° to + 20°. We found that the Eν-Bϕ cross-phase is very close to ±90° except near the nodes, indicating that the fixed-end approximation is appropriate in modeling dayside toroidal waves. Noting that the node latitudes depend on the distribution of the mass density (ρ) along the background magnetic field, we inferred the distribution from the nodes observed at L = 4–6. If we adopt a model field line mass density (ρ) distribution of the form ρ ∝ (1/r)α, where r is geocentric distance to the field line and α is a free parameter, the statistically determined node latitudes indicate that α ∼ 1.5 is appropriate for both the plasmasphere and the plasmatrough.

Takahashi, Kazue; Denton, Richard;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Toroidal Alfven waves; inner magnetosphere; Nodal structure; Field line mass density distribution; Van Allen Probes

Energetic Electron Precipitation Observed by FIREBIRD-II Potentially Driven by EMIC Waves: Location, Extent, and Energy Range from a Multi-Event Analysis

Abstract We evaluate the location, extent and energy range of electron precipitation driven by ElectroMagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves using coordinated multi-satellite observations from near-equatorial and Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) missions. Electron precipitation was analyzed using the Focused Investigations of Relativistic Electron Burst Intensity, Range and Dynamics (FIREBIRD-II) CubeSats, in conjunction either with typical EMIC-driven precipitation signatures observed by Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES) or with in situ EMIC wave observations from Van Allen Probes. The multi-event analysis shows that electron precipitation occurred in a broad region near dusk (16–23 MLT), mostly confined to 3.5–7.5 L- shells. Each precipitation event occurred on localized radial scales, on average ∼0.3 L. Most importantly, FIREBIRD-II recorded electron precipitation from ∼200–300 keV to the expected ∼MeV energies for most cases, suggesting that EMIC waves can efficiently scatter a wide energy range of electrons.

Capannolo, L.; Li, W.; Spence, H.; Johnson, A.; Shumko, M.; Sample, J.; Klumpar, D.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

electron precipitation; EMIC waves; inner magnetosphere; electron losses; proton precipitation; wave-particle interactions; Van Allen Probes

Investigation of small-scale electron density irregularities observed by the Arase and Van Allen Probes satellites inside and outside the plasmasphere

AbstractIn-situ electron density profiles obtained from Arase in the night magnetic local time (MLT) sector and from RBSP-B covering all MLTs are used to study the small-scale density irregularities present in the plasmasphere and near the plasmapause. Electron density perturbations with amplitudes > 10\% from background density and with time-scales less than 30-min are investigated here as the small-scale density irregularities. The statistical survey of the density irregularities is carried out using nearly two years of density data obtained from RBSP-B and four months of data from Arase satellites. The results show that density irregularities are present globally at all MLT sectors and L-shells both inside and outside the plasmapause, with a higher occurrence at L > 4. The occurrence of density irregularities is found to be higher during disturbed geomagnetic and interplanetary conditions. The case studies presented here revealed: 1) The plasmaspheric density irregularities observed during both quiet and disturbed conditions are found to co-exist with the hot plasma sheet population. 2) During quiet periods, the plasma waves in the whistler-mode frequency range are found to be modulated by the small-scale density irregularities, with density depletions coinciding well with the decrease in whistler intensity. Our observations suggest that different source mechanisms are responsible for the generation of density structures at different MLTs and geomagnetic conditions.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Thomas, Neethal; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Shinohara, Iku; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Matsuoka, Ayako; Kasahara, Satoshi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Keika, Kunihiro; Hori, Tomo; Asamura, Kazushi; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Kazama, Yoichi; Tam, Sunny; Chang, Tzu-Fang; Wang, Bo-Jhou; Wygant, John; Breneman, Aaron; Reeves, Geoff;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Electron density; small-scale density irregularities; plasmasphere; inner magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes; Arase

The First Observation of N+ Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves

Abstract Observations from past space missions report on the significant abundance of N+, in addition to those of O+, outflowing from the terrestrial ionosphere and populating the near-Earth region. However, instruments on board current space missions lack the mass resolution to distinguish between the two, and often the role of N+ in regulating the magnetosphere dynamics, is lumped together with that of O+ ions. For instance, our understanding regarding the role of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in controlling the loss and acceleration of radiation belt electrons and ring current ions has been based on the contribution of He+ and O+ ions only. We report the first observations by Van Allen Probes of linearly polarized N+ EMIC waves, which confirm the presence of N+ in the terrestrial magnetosphere, and open up new avenues to particle energization, loss, and transport mechanisms, based on the altered magnetospheric plasma composition.

Bashir, Fraz; Ilie, Raluca;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves; heavy ions; Van Allen Probes; N+ EMIC Wave; Wave-particle interaction; inner magnetosphere

Challenging the Use of Ring Current Indices During Geomagnetic Storms

Abstract The ring current experiences dramatic enhancements during geomagnetic storms, however understanding the global distribution of ring current energy content is restricted by spacecraft coverage. Many studies use ring current indices as a proxy for energy content, but these indices average over spatial variations and include additional contributions. We have conducted an analysis of Van Allen Probes’ data, identifying the spatial distribution and storm-time variations of energy content. Ion observations from the HOPE and RBSPICE instruments were used to estimate energy content in L-MLT bins. The results show large enhancements particularly in the premidnight sector during the main phase, alongside reductions in local time asymmetry and intensity during the recovery phase. A comparison with estimated energy content using the Sym-H index was conducted. In agreement with previous results, the Sym-H index significantly overestimates (by up to ∼ 4 times) the energy content, and we attribute the difference to contributions from additional current systems. A new finding is an observed temporal discrepancy, where energy content estimates from the Sym-H index maximise 3 to 9 hours earlier than in situ observations. Case studies reveal a complex relationship, where variable degrees of agreement between the Sym-H index and in situ measurements are observed. The results highlight the drawbacks of ring current indices and emphasise the variability of the storm time ring current.

Sandhu, J.; Rae, I.; Walach, M.-T.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

ring current; Geomagnetic storms; Van Allen Probes; inner magnetosphere; substorms


Mirror instabilities in the inner magnetosphere and their potential for localized ULF wave generation

Results from the NASA Van Allen Probes mission indicate extensive observations of mirror/drift-mirror (M/D-M hereafter) unstable plasma regions in the nightside inner magnetosphere. Said plasmas lie on the threshold between the kinetic and frozen-in plasma regimes and have favorable conditions for the formation of M/D-M modes and subsequent ultra-low frequency (ULF) wave signatures in the surrounding plasma. We present the results of a climatological analysis of plasma-γ (anisotropy measure) and total plasma-β (ratio of particle to magnetic field pressure) in regard to the satisfaction of instability conditions on said M/D-M modes under bi-Maxwellian distribution assumption, and ascertain the most likely region for such plasmas to occur. Our results indicate a strong preference for the pre-midnight sector of the nightside magnetosphere, with events ranging in time scales from half a minute (roughly 200 km in scale size) to several hours (multiple Earth radii). The statistical distribution of these plasma regions explicitly identifies the source region of “storm time Pc5 ULF waves” and suggests an alternative mechanism for their generation in the nightside inner magnetosphere.

Cooper, M.; Gerrard, A.; Lanzerotti, L.; Soto-Chavez, A.; Kim, H.; Kuzichev, I.; Goodwin, L.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

Mirror mode-unstable plasma; ULF waves; magnetotail injections; inner magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes

Multi-Parameter Chorus and Plasmaspheric Hiss Wave Models

Abstract The resonant interaction of energetic particles with plasma waves, such as chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves, plays a direct and crucial role in the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons that ultimately affect the dynamics of the radiation belts. In this study, we use the comprehensive wave data measurements made by the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science instruments on board the two Van Allen probes, to develop multi-parameter statistical chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models. The models of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves are presented as a function of combined geomagnetic activity (AE), solar wind velocity (V), and southward interplanetary magnetic field (Bs). The relatively smooth wave models reveal new features. Despite, the coupling between geomagnetic and solar wind parameters, the results show that each parameter still carries a sufficient amount of unique information to more accurately constrain the chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave intensities. The new wave models presented here highlight the importance of multi-parameter wave models, and can improve radiation belt modeling.

Aryan, Homayon; Bortnik, Jacob; Meredith, Nigel; Horne, Richard; Sibeck, David; Balikhin, Michael;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

chorus waves; inner magnetosphere; multi parameter wave distribution; plasmaspheric hiss waves; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions

Inner Magnetospheric Response to the Interplanetary Magnetic Field By Component: Van Allen Probes and Arase Observations

We utilize 17 years of combined Van Allen Probes and Arase data to statistically analyze the response of the inner magnetosphere to the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By component. Past studies have demonstrated that the IMF By component introduces a similarly oriented By component into the magnetosphere. However, these studies have tended to focus on field lines in the magnetotail only reaching as close to the Earth as the geosynchronous orbit. By exploiting data from these inner magnetospheric spacecraft, we have been able to investigate the response at radial distances of <7RE. When subtracting the background magnetic field values, provided by the T01 and IGRF magnetic field models, we find that the IMF By component does affect the configuration of the magnetic field lines in the inner magnetosphere. This control is observed throughout the inner magnetosphere, across both hemispheres, all radial distances, and all magnetic local time sectors. The ratio of IMF By to the observed By residual, also known as the “penetration efficiency,” is found to be ∼0.33. The IMF Bz component is found to increase, or inhibit, this control depending upon its orientation.

Case, N.; Hartley, D.; Grocott, A.; Miyoshi, Y.; Matsuoka, A.; Imajo, S.; Kurita, S.; Shinohara, I.; Teramoto, M.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

By; y-component; inner magnetosphere; IMF; response; Van Allen Probes

On the Formation of Wedge-Like Ion Spectral Structures in the Nightside Inner Magnetosphere

Recent observations in the nightside inner magnetosphere have identified a series of wedge-like spectral structures in the energy-time spectrograms of oxygen, helium, and hydrogen ion fluxes. Although the shapes and distributions of these structures have been characterized by case and statistical studies, their formation mechanism remains unclear. Here we utilize a particle tracing model to reproduce the wedge-like structures successively observed by the twin Van Allen Probes. The model suggests that these structures originate from intermittent substorm injection, and it is the accessibility region of these injected ions that determines their shapes. This mechanism is similar to the formation of another kind of structures, the inner magnetospheric nose-like structures, except that the wedge-like structures are separated from the tail population by the discontinuation of ion injections. This scenario is also supported by the distribution statistics of wedge-like structures, which provides new insights into the dynamics of the magnetotail-inner magnetosphere coupled system.

Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Ren, Jie; Yang, Fan; Yue, Chao; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Fu, Sui-Yan; Wang, Yongfu;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 11/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

wedge-like structure; inner magnetosphere; substorm injection; magnetospheric convection; ring current; magnetotail; Van Allen Probes

Simultaneously Formed Wedge-Like Structures of Different Ion Species Deep in the Inner Magnetosphere

In this study, ion data from the Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) spectrometers onboard Van Allen Probes reveal the existence of wedge-like structures of O+, He+, and H+ ions deep in the inner magnetosphere. The behaviors of the wedge-like structures in terms of temporal evolution, spatial distribution, upper energy limit, as well as dependence on solar wind and different geomagnetic indices are investigated from both event studies of several consecutive orbits on 3 February 2013 and the subsequent statistical analyses using 4 years of data. Unlike the dominant distribution at –8 in the dayside observed by the polar orbit satellites in previous studies, the wedge-like structures deep in the equatorial plane of the inner magnetosphere are found mostly at the Mcllwain L shells of –5 and have a preferential location in the duskside and nightside. The O+ and He+ structures can extend to smaller L shells with higher upper energy limits than the H+ structures, while the upper energy limits of all these particle species show a similar variation tendency with respect to magnetic local time (MLT) and L. Observations indicate that these wedge-like structures are probably attributed to fresh substorm injections from the outer region.

Ren, Jie; Zong, Q.; Yue, C.; Zhou, X.; Fu, S; Spence, H.; Funsten, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 11/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

wedge-like structures; Ring current ions; inner magnetosphere; Substorm Injections; Van Allen Probes

Correlations Between Dispersive Alfvén Wave Activity, Electron Energization, and Ion Outflow in the Inner Magnetosphere

Using measurements from the Van Allen Probes, we show that field-aligned fluxes of electrons energized by dispersive Alfvén waves (DAWs) are prominent in the inner magnetosphere during active conditions. These electrons have preferentially field-aligned anisotropies from 1.2 to >2 at energies ranging from tens of electron volts to several kiloelectron volts (keV), with largest values being coincident with magnetic field dipolarizations. Comparisons reveal that DAW energy densities and Poynting fluxes are strongly correlated with precipitating electron energies and energy fluxes and also O+ ion outflow energies. These observations yield empirical inner magnetosphere relations between the DAW and electron inputs and the O+ ion outflow response, providing important constraints for models. They also suggest that DAWs play an important role in enhancing field-aligned electron input into the ionosphere that facilitates the outflow and subsequent energization of O+ ions in the wave fields into the inner magnetosphere.

Hull, A.; Chaston, C.; Bonnell, J.; Damiano, P.; Wygant, J.; Reeves, G.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

dispersive Alfvén waves; field-aligned electrons; inner magnetosphere; oxygen ion outflow; Geomagnetic storms; substorms; Van Allen Probes

Can Solar Wind Decompressive Discontinuities Suppress Magnetospheric Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves Associated With Fresh Proton Injections?

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves play an important role in the energy transfer among particles of different energies and species in the magnetosphere, whose drivers have been commonly recognized as solar wind compressions and storm/substorm proton injections. However, how the solar wind decompressions related to frequently occurring discontinuities compete with the proton injections in the evolution of EMIC waves has been rarely investigated. Here we present a complete end-to-end observation by Wind, THEMIS, and Van Allen Probes missions during the main phase of the 23 February 2014 storm of a succession of solar wind rotational discontinuities decompressing the magnetosphere within 200 s, adiabatically decelerating the freshly injected >10 keV protons, and thus suppressing the EMIC waves in the inner magnetosphere. Our results highlight the importance of solar wind conditions for the evolution of inner magnetospheric EMIC waves from a new perspective.

Liu, Nigang; Su, Zhenpeng; Gao, Zhonglei; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

EMIC waves; solar wind discontinuity; storm/substorm injection; wave generation; adiabatic deceleration; inner magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes


Evolution of Pitch Angle-Distributed Megaelectron Volt Electrons During Each Phase of the Geomagnetic Storm

Using Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope measurements onboard Van Allen Probes, the evolution of electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) during the different phases of magnetic storms is studied. Electron fluxes are sorted in terms of storm phase, urn:x-wiley:jgra:media:jgra55457:jgra55457-math-0001 value, energy, and magnetic local time (MLT) sectors for 55 magnetic storms from October 2012 through May 2017. To understand the potential mechanisms for the evolution of electron PADs, we fit PADs to a sinusoidal function urn:x-wiley:jgra:media:jgra55457:jgra55457-math-0002, where urn:x-wiley:jgra:media:jgra55457:jgra55457-math-0003 is the equatorial pitch angle and n is a real number. The major inferences from our study are (i) at L urn:x-wiley:jgra:media:jgra55457:jgra55457-math-00045, the prestorm electron PADs are nearly isotropic (n urn:x-wiley:jgra:media:jgra55457:jgra55457-math-00050), which evolves differently in different MLT sectors during the main phase subsequently recovering back to nearly isotropic distribution type during the storm recovery phase; (ii) for urn:x-wiley:jgra:media:jgra55457:jgra55457-math-0006 urn:x-wiley:jgra:media:jgra55457:jgra55457-math-0007 3.4 MeV, the main phase electron PADs become more pancake like on the dayside with high n values (>3), while it becomes more flattop to butterfly like on the nightside, (iii) at L = 5, magnetic field strength during the storm main phase enhances during the daytime and decreases during the nighttime. (iv) Conversely, at L urn:x-wiley:jgra:media:jgra55457:jgra55457-math-00083, the electron PADs neither respond significantly to the different phase of the magnetic storm nor reflect any MLT dependence. (v) Main phase, electron fluxes with urn:x-wiley:jgra:media:jgra55457:jgra55457-math-0009 <4.2 MeV shows a persistent 90\textdegree maximum PAD with n ranging between 0 and 2, while for urn:x-wiley:jgra:media:jgra55457:jgra55457-math-0010 urn:x-wiley:jgra:media:jgra55457:jgra55457-math-0011 4.2 MeV the distribution appears flattop and butterfly like. Our study shows that the relativistic electron PADs depend upon the geomagnetic storm phase and possible underlying mechanisms are discussed in this paper.

Pandya, Megha; Bhaskara, Veenadhari; Ebihara, Yusuke; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Baker, Daniel;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027086

electron flux; inner magnetosphere; Pitch angle distribution; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Particle Dynamics in the Earth\textquoterights Radiation Belts: Review of Current Research and Open Questions

The past decade transformed our observational understanding of energetic particle processes in near-Earth space. An unprecedented suite of observational systems were in operation including the Van Allen Probes, Arase, MMS, THEMIS, Cluster, GPS, GOES, and LANL-GEO magnetospheric missions. They were supported by conjugate low-altitude measurements on spacecraft, balloons, and ground-based arrays. Together these significantly improved our ability to determine and quantify the mechanisms that control the build-up and subsequent variability of energetic particle intensities in the inner magnetosphere. The high-quality data from NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes are the most comprehensive in-situ measurements ever taken in the near-Earth space radiation environment. These observations, coupled with recent advances in radiation belt theory and modeling, including dramatic increases in computational power, has ushered in a new era, perhaps a \textquotedblleftgolden era,\textquotedblright in radiation belt research. We have edited a Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Science Special Collection dedicated to Particle Dynamics in the Earth\textquoterights Radiation Belts in which we gather the most recent scientific findings and understanding of this important region of geospace. This collection includes the results presented at the American Geophysical Union Chapman International Conference in Cascais, Portugal (03/2018) and many other recent and relevant contributions. The present article introduces and review the context, current research, and main questions that motivate modern radiation belt research divided into the following topics: (1) particle acceleration and transport, (2) particle loss, (3) the role of nonlinear processes, (4) new radiation belt modeling capabilities and the quantification of model uncertainties, and (5) laboratory plasma experiments.

Ripoll, Jean-Francois; Claudepierre, Seth; Ukhorskiy, Sasha; Colpitts, Chris; Li, Xinlin; Fennell, Joe; Crabtree, Chris;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026735

inner magnetosphere; laboratory plasma experiments; Particle acceleration; particle loss; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Analyzing EMIC Waves in the Inner Magnetosphere Using Long-Term Van Allen Probes Observations

With 64-month magnetic data from Van Allen Probes, we have studied not only the global distribution, wave normal angle (θ), and ellipticity (ε) of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, but also the dependence of their occurrence rates and magnetic amplitudes on the AE* index (the mean value of AE index over previous 1 hr). Our results show that H+ band waves are preferentially detected at 5 <= L <= 6.5, in the noon sector. They typically have small θ (<30\textdegree) and weakly left-hand polarization but become more oblique and linearly polarized at larger magnetic latitudes or L-shells. With the increase of AE* index, their occurrence rate significantly increases in the noon sector, and their source region extends to dusk sector. He+ band waves usually occur in the predawn and morning sectors at 3 <= L <= 4.5. They generally have moderate θ (30 \textdegree - 40\textdegree) and left-hand polarization and also become more oblique and linearly polarized at larger latitudes or L-shells. There is a clear enhancement of occurrence rate and amplitude during active geomagnetic periods, especially in the dusk and evening sectors. O+ band waves mainly occur at 3 <= L <= 4 in the predawn sector. They have either very small θ (<20\textdegree) or very large θ (>50\textdegree), and typically linear or weakly right-hand polarization. During active periods, they mostly occur at the midnight sector and L < 3.5. As a valuable supplement to previous statistical studies, our result provides not only a more compresentive EMIC wave model for evaluating their effects on the radiation belt, but also detailed observational constraints on generation mechanisms of EMIC waves.

Chen, Huayue; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Wang, Shui;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026965

A long-term statistical work; EMIC wave; inner magnetosphere; spatial distribution; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes observation; Wave fundamental characters

Substorm-Ring Current Coupling: A Comparison of Isolated and Compound Substorms

Substorms are a highly variable process, which can occur as an isolated event or as part of a sequence of multiple substorms (compound substorms). In this study we identify how the low-energy population of the ring current and subsequent energization varies for isolated substorms compared to the first substorm of a compound event. Using observations of H+ and O+ ions (1 eV to 50 keV) from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron instrument onboard Van Allen Probe A, we determine the energy content of the ring current in L-MLT space. We observe that the ring current energy content is significantly enhanced during compound substorms as compared to isolated substorms by \~20\textendash30\%. Furthermore, we observe a significantly larger magnitude of energization (by \~40\textendash50\%) following the onset of compound substorms relative to isolated substorms. Analysis suggests that the differences predominantly arise due to a sustained enhancement in dayside driving associated with compound substorms compared to isolated substorms. The strong solar wind driving prior to onset results in important differences in the time history of the magnetosphere, generating significantly different ring current conditions and responses to substorms. The observations reveal information about the substorm injected population and the transport of the plasma in the inner magnetosphere.

Sandhu, J.; Rae, I.; Freeman, M.; Gkioulidou, M.; Forsyth, C.; Reeves, G.; Murphy, K.; Walach, M.-T.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026766

inner magnetosphere; ring current; substorms; Van Allen; Van Allen Probes

Cyclotron Acceleration of Relativistic Electrons Through Landau Resonance With Obliquely Propagating Whistler-Mode Chorus Emissions

Efficient acceleration of relativistic electrons at Landau resonance with obliquely propagating whistler-mode chorus emissions is confirmed by theory, simulation, and observation. The acceleration is due to the perpendicular component of the wave electric field. We first review theoretical analysis of nonlinear motion of resonant electrons interacting with obliquely propagating whistler-mode chorus. We have derived formulae of inhomogeneity factors for Landau and cyclotron resonances to analyze nonlinear wave trapping of energetic electrons by an obliquely propagating chorus element. We performed test particle simulations to confirm that nonlinear wave trapping by both Landau and cyclotron resonances can take place for a wide range of energies. For an element of large amplitude chorus waves observed by the Van Allen Probes, we have performed detailed analyses of the wave form data based on theoretical framework of nonlinear trapping of resonant electrons. We compare the efficiencies of accelerations by cyclotron and Landau resonances. We find significant acceleration can take place both in Landau and cyclotron resonances. What controls the dynamics of relativistic electrons in the Landau resonance is the perpendicular field components rather than the parallel electric field of the oblique chorus wave. In evaluating the efficiency of nonlinear trapping, we have taken into account variation of the wave trapping potential structure controlled by the inhomogeneity factors.

Omura, Yoshiharu; Hsieh, Yi-Kai; Foster, John; Erickson, Philip; Kletzing, Craig; Baker, Daniel;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026374

inner magnetosphere; nonlinear process; Radiation belts; relativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes; wave particle interaction; whistler-mode chorus

Reanalysis of Ring Current Electron Phase Space Densities Using Van Allen Probe Observations, Convection Model, and Log-Normal Kalman Filter

Aseev, N.; Shprits, Y;

Published by: Space Weather      Published on: 04/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018SW002110

data assimilation; inner magnetosphere; Kalman Filter; Reanalysis; ring current; Van Allen Probes

Reanalysis of ring current electron phase space densities using Van Allen Probe observations, convection model, and log-normal Kalman filter

Models of ring current electron dynamics unavoidably contain uncertainties in boundary conditions, electric and magnetic fields, electron scattering rates, and plasmapause location. Model errors can accumulate with time and result in significant deviations of model predictions from observations. Data assimilation offers useful tools which can combine physics-based models and measurements to improve model predictions. In this study, we systematically analyze performance of the Kalman filter applied to a log-transformed convection model of ring current electrons and Van Allen Probe data. We consider long-term dynamics of μ = 2.3 MeV/G and K = 0.3 G1/2RE electrons from 1 February 2013 to 16 June 2013. By using synthetic data, we show that the Kalman filter is capable of correcting errors in model predictions associated with uncertainties in electron lifetimes, boundary conditions, and convection electric fields. We demonstrate that reanalysis retains features which cannot be fully reproduced by the convection model such as storm-time earthward propagation of the electrons down to 2.5 RE. The Kalman filter can adjust model predictions to satellite measurements even in regions where data are not available. We show that the Kalman filter can adjust model predictions in accordance with observations for μ = 0.1, 2.3, and 9.9 MeV/G and constant K = 0.3 G1/2RE electrons. The results of this study demonstrate that data assimilation can improve performance of ring current models, better quantify model uncertainties, and help deeper understand the physics of the ring current particles.

Aseev, N.A.; Shprits, Y.Y.;

Published by: Space Weather      Published on: 04/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018SW002110

data assimilation; inner magnetosphere; Kalman Filter; Reanalysis; ring current; Van Allen Probes

Solar rotation period driven modulations of plasmaspheric density and convective electric field in the inner magnetosphere

This paper presents the first analysis of Van Allen Probes measurements of the cold plasma density and electric field in the inner magnetosphere to show that intervals of strong modulation at the solar rotation period occur in the locations of the outer plasmasphere and plasmapause (~0.7 RE peak-to-peak), in the large-scale electric field (~0.24 mV/m peak-to-peak), and in the cold plasma density (~250 cm-3 \textendash ~70 cm-3 peak-to-peak). Solar rotation modulation of the inner magnetosphere is more apparent in the declining phase of the solar cycle than near solar maximum. The periodicities in these parameters are compared to solar EUV irradiance, solar wind dawn-dusk electric field, and Kp. The variations in the plasmapause location at the solar rotation period anti-correlate with solar wind electric field, magnetospheric electric field, and Kp, but not with EUV irradiance, indicating that convective erosion is the dominant physical process controlling the plasmapause at these timescales.

Thaller, S.; Wygant, J.; Cattell, C.; Breneman, A.; Tyler, E.; Tian, S.; Engel, A.; De Pascuale, S.; Kurth, W.; Kletzing, C.; Tears, J.; Malaspina, David;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026365

convection electric field; inner magnetosphere; Plasmapause; plasmasphere; solar rotation; Van Allen Probes

Low-Energy (+ Ion Outflow Directly Into the Inner Magnetosphere: Van Allen Probes Observations

The heavy ion component of the low-energy (eV to hundreds of eV) ion population in the inner magnetosphere, also known as the O+ torus, is a crucial population for various aspects of magnetospheric dynamics. Yet even though its existence has been known since the 1980s, its formation remains an open question. We present a comprehensive study of a low-energy (

Gkioulidou, Matina; Ohtani, S.; Ukhorskiy, A; Mitchell, D.; Takahashi, K.; Spence, H.; Wygant, J.; Kletzing, C.; Barnes, R.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025862

inner magnetosphere; O+ outflow; Van Allen Probes

Multisatellite Analysis of Plasma Pressure in the Inner Magnetosphere During the 1 June 2013 Geomagnetic Storm

Using data from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program 16\textendash18, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 15\textendash19, and METOP 1\textendash2 satellites, we reconstructed for the first time a two-dimensional statistical distribution of plasma pressure in the inner magnetosphere during the 1 June 2013 geomagnetic storm with time resolution of 6 hr. Simultaneously, we used the data from Van Allen Probes and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions missions to obtain the in situ plasma pressure in the equatorial plane. This allowed us to corroborate that the dipole mapping works reasonably well during the storm time and that variations of plasma pressure are consistent at low and high altitudes; namely, we observed a drastic increase in plasma pressure a few hours before the storm onset that continued during the storm main phase. Plasma pressure remained elevated during the first 18 hr of the recovery phase and then started to decrease to normal levels. We found that the variation in pressure correlates with the change in the slope of the Dst index, and that the plasma pressure nearly conserved its axial symmetry during the storm, giving one more evidence that the ring current provides the main contribution to the Dst variation. We also found that the plasma pressure in the magnetosphere correlates with the solar wind dynamic pressure with a correlation coefficient exceeding 0.9, which can be related to the pressure balance at the magnetospheric flanks. The results obtained here agree with the concept of the ring current generation by an inner magnetosphere plasma ring in magnetostatic equilibrium.

Stepanova, M.; Antonova, E.E.; Moya, P.S.; Pinto, V.A.; Valdivia, J.A.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025965

Dynamic pressure; Geomagnetic storm; inner magnetosphere; plasma pressure; Solar wind; Van Allen Probes

The Response of Earth\textquoterights Electron Radiation Belts to Geomagnetic Storms: Statistics From the Van Allen Probes Era Including Effects From Different Storm Drivers

A statistical study was conducted of Earth\textquoterights radiation belt electron response to geomagnetic storms using NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes mission. Data for electrons with energies ranging from 30 keV to 6.3 MeV were included and examined as a function of L-shell, energy, and epoch time during 110 storms with SYM-H <=-50 nT during September 2012 to September 2017 (inclusive). The radiation belt response revealed clear energy and L-shell dependencies, with tens of keV electrons enhanced at all L-shells (2.5 <= L <= 6) in all storms during the storm commencement and main phase and then quickly decaying away during the early recovery phase, low hundreds of keV electrons enhanced at lower L-shells (~3 <= L <= ~4) in upward of 90\% of all storms and then decaying gradually during the recovery phase, and relativistic electrons throughout the outer belt showing main phase dropouts with subsequent and generally unpredictable levels of replenishment during the recovery phase. Compared to prestorm levels, electrons with energies >1 MeV also revealed a marked increase in likelihood of a depletion at all L-shells through the outer belt (3.5 <= L <= 6). Additional statistics were compiled revealing the storm time morphology of the radiation belts, confirming the aforementioned qualitative behavior. Considering storm drivers in the solar wind: storms driven by coronal mass ejection (CME) shocks/sheaths and CME ejecta only are most likely to result in a depletion of >1-MeV electrons throughout the outer belt, while storms driven by full CMEs and stream interaction regions are most likely to produce an enhancement of MeV electrons at lower (L < ~5) and higher (L > ~4.5) L-shells, respectively. CME sheaths intriguingly result in a distinct enhancement of ~1-MeV electrons around L~5.5, and on average, CME sheaths and stream interaction regions result in double outer belt structures.

Turner, D.; Kilpua, E.; Hietala, H.; Claudepierre, S.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Jaynes, A.; Kanekal, S.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Ripoll, J.-F.; Reeves, G.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026066

energetic particles; Geomagnetic storms; inner magnetosphere; Radiation belts; relativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions


Response of banded whistler-mode waves to the enhancement of solar wind dynamic pressure in the inner Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere

With observations of Van Allen Probe A, in this letter we display a typical event where banded whistler waves shifted up their frequencies with frequency bands broadening as a response to the enhancement of solar wind dynamic pressure. Meanwhile, the anisotropy of electrons with energies about several tens of keV was observed to increase. Through the comparison of the calculated wave growth rates and observed wave spectral intensity, we suggest that those banded whistler waves observed with frequencies shifted up and frequency bands broadening could be locally excited by these hot electrons with increased anisotropy. The current study provides a great in situ evidence for the influence on frequencies of banded whistler waves by the enhancement of solar wind dynamic pressures, which reveals the important role of solar wind dynamic pressures playing in the frequency properties of banded whistler waves.

Yu, Xiongdong; Yuan, Zhigang; Li, Haimeng; Huang, Shiyong; Wang, Dedong; Yao, Fei; Funsten, H.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: Mar-08-2020

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL078849

Banded whistler-mode waves; Frequency properties; inner magnetosphere; solar wind dynamic pressure; Van Allen Probes

Longitudinal Structure of Oxygen Torus in the Inner Magnetosphere: Simultaneous Observations by Arase and Van Allen Probe A

Simultaneous observations of the magnetic field and plasma waves made by the Arase and Van Allen Probe A satellites at different magnetic local time (MLT) enable us to deduce the longitudinal structure of an oxygen torus for the first time. During 04:00\textendash07:10 UT on 24 April 2017, Arase flew from L = 6.2 to 2.0 in the morning sector and detected an enhancement of the average plasma mass up to ~3.5 amu around L = 4.9\textendash5.2 and MLT = 5.0 hr, implying that the plasma consists of approximately 15\% O+ ions. Probe A moved outbound from L = 2.0 to 6.2 in the afternoon sector during 04:10\textendash07:30 UT and observed no clear enhancements in the average plasma mass. For this event, the O+ density enhancement in the inner magnetosphere (i.e., oxygen torus) does not extend over all MLT but is skewed toward the dawn, being described more precisely as a crescent-shaped torus or a pinched torus.

e, M.; Matsuoka, A.; Kumamoto, A.; Kasahara, Y.; Goldstein, J.; Teramoto, M.; Tsuchiya, F.; Matsuda, S.; Shoji, M.; Imajo, S.; Oimatsu, S.; Yamamoto, K.; Obana, Y.; Nomura, R.; Fujimoto, A.; Shinohara, I.; Miyoshi, Y.; Kurth, W.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C.; MacDowall, R.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 10/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL080122

Arase satellite; Geomagnetic storm; inner magnetosphere; oxygen torus; simultaneous observation; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes satellite

Variation in Plasmaspheric Hiss Wave Power With Plasma Density

Plasmaspheric hiss waves are commonly observed in the inner magnetosphere. These waves efficiently scatter electrons, facilitating their precipitation into the atmosphere. Predictive inner magnetosphere simulations often model hiss waves using parameterized empirical maps of observed hiss power. These maps nearly always include parameterization by magnetic L value. In this work, data from the Van Allen Probes are used to compare variation in hiss wave power with variation in both L value and cold plasma density. It is found that for L> 2.5, plasmaspheric hiss wave power increases with plasma density. For L> 3, this increase is stronger and occurs regardless of L value and for all local times. This result suggests that the current paradigm for parameterizing hiss wave power in many magnetospheric simulations may need to be revisited and that a new parameterization in terms of plasma density rather than L value should be explored.

Malaspina, David; Ripoll, Jean-Francois; Chu, Xiangning; Hospodarsky, George; Wygant, John;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 09/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL078564

inner magnetosphere; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes; Wave models

Magnetospheric source region of auroral finger-like structures observed by the RBSP-A satellite

Auroral finger-like structures appear equatorward of the auroral oval in the diffuse auroral region and contribute to the auroral fragmentation into patches. A previous report of the first conjugate observation of auroral finger-like structures using a THEMIS GBO camera and the THEMIS-E satellite at a radial distance of \~8 RE showed anti-phase oscillations of magnetic and plasma pressures in the dawnside plasma sheet. In the present study, we report another simultaneous observation of auroral finger-like structures at Gillam, Canada at \~0900 UT (0230 magnetic local time) on November 14, 2014 with the RBSP satellites at 5.8 RE in the inner magnetosphere. From this simultaneous observation event, we obtained the following observations. (1) Auroral finger-like structures developed poleward in the equatorward-moving auroral arc at the equatorward edge of the auroral oval. (2) Both the electron and ion OMNI fluxes measured by HOPE increased at \~0900 UT as the satellite footprint entered the auroral region, indicating that the satellite was crossing the observed auroral finger-like structures. (3) The absolute value of magnetic pressure was several times that of the plasma pressure, and no systematic phase relationship was identified between the magnetic and plasma pressures, unlike that in the THEMIS case. Based on these observations, we discuss two possible causes of the observed finger-like structures, namely, pressure-driven instability in the magnetosphere and gradient-drift instability in the ionosphere. In this paper, the latter possibility is newly suggested to develop in the equatorward-moving aurora associated with the westward electric field in the equatorward ionospheric density gradient.

Nishi, Katsuki; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Spence, Harlan;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025480

Auroral finger-like structure; inner magnetosphere; pressure-driven instability; Van Allen Probes

Observations of impulsive electric fields induced by Interplanetary Shock

We investigate the characteristics of impulsive electric fields in Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere, as measured by the Van Allen Probes, in association with interplanetary shocks, as measured by ACE and Wind spacecraft in the solar wind from January 2013 to July 2016. It is shown that electric field impulses are mainly induced by global compressions by the shocks, mostly in the azimuthal direction and the amplitudes of the initial electric field impulses are positively correlated with the rate of increase of dynamic pressure across the shock in the dayside. It is also shown that the temporal profile of the impulse is related to the temporal profile of the solar wind dynamic pressure, Pd. It is suggested that during the first period of the impulse the evolution of the electric field is directly controlled by external solar wind forcing, and thus finite rates of change of Pd should be considered in the study of the interactions between solar wind and magnetosphere. Implications of shock-induced impulsive electric fields on the acceleration and transport of radiation belt electrons are also discussed.

Zhang, Dianjun; Liu, Wenlong; Li, Xinlin; Sarris, Theodore; Xiao, Chao; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 07/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL078809

electric field; inner magnetosphere; interplanetary shock; particle accelaration; Van Allen Probes

Plasma anisotropies and currents in the near-Earth plasma sheet and inner magnetosphere

The region occupying radial distances of \~3 - 9 Earth radii (RE) in the night side, includes the near-Earth plasma sheet with stretched magnetic field lines and the inner magnetosphere with strong dipolar magnetic field. In this region, the plasma flow energy, which was injected into the inner magnetosphere from the magnetotail, is converted to particle heating and electromagnetic wave generation. These important processes are controlled by plasma anisotropies, which are the focus of this study. Using measurements of THEMIS and Van Allen Probes in this transition region we obtain radial profiles of ion and electron temperatures and anisotropies for various geomagnetic activity levels. Ion and electron anisotropies vary with the geomagnetic activity in opposite directions. Parallel anisotropic ions are observed together with transversely anisotropic electrons, whereas the change of ion anisotropy from parallel to transverse (with increasing Kp) is accompanied by the electron anisotropy changing from transverse to parallel. Based on plasma anisotropy observations, we estimate that the anisotropy-related currents (curvature currents) are about 10 - 20\% of the diamagnetic currents.

Artemyev, A.; Zhang, X.-J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.; Spence, H.; Larsen, B.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025232

injections; inner magnetosphere; plasma currents; plasma sheet; Van Allen Probes

Spatial Development of the Dipolarization Region in the Inner Magnetosphere

The present study examines dipolarization events observed by the Van Allen Probes within 5.8 RE from Earth. It is found that the probability of occurrence is significantly higher in the dusk-to-midnight sector than in the midnight-to-dawn sector, and it deceases sharply earthward. A comparison with observations made at nearby satellites shows that dipolarization signatures are often highly correlated (c.c. > 0.8) within 1 hr in MLT and 1 RE in RXY, and the dipolarization region expands earthward and westward in the dusk-to-midnight sector. The westward expansion velocity is estimated at 0.4 hr (in MLT) per minute, or 60 km/s, which is consistent with the previously reported result for geosynchronous dipolarization. The earthward expansion is apparently less systematic than the westward expansion. Its velocity is estimated at 50 km/s (0.5 RE/min), comparable to the westward expansion velocity, but it is suggested that the earthward expansion slows down as the dipolarization region approaches Earth, and it eventually stops. This idea is consistent with the earthward reduction of the occurrence probability of dipolarization events. Whereas this earthward expansion is difficult to explain with the conventional wedge current system, it may be understood in terms of a current system with two wedges, one with the R1 polarity outside and the other with the R2 polarity closer to Earth. For such a current system the region of dipolarization is confined in radial distance between the two wedge currents, and it is considered to expand earthward as the R2-sense wedge moves earthward along with injected plasma.

Ohtani, S.; Motoba, T.; Gkioulidou, M.; Takahashi, K.; Singer, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025443

Dipolarization; injection; inner magnetosphere; R1 and R2 currents; substorm current wedge; substorms; Van Allen Probes

On the role of last closed drift shell dynamics in driving fast losses and Van Allen radiation belt extinction

We present observations of very fast radiation belt loss as resolved using high-time resolution electron flux data from the constellation of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. The timescale of these losses is revealed to be as short as \~0.5 - 2 hours during intense magnetic storms, with some storms demonstrating almost total loss on these timescales and which we characterize as radiation belt extinction. The intense March 2013 and March 2015 storms both show such fast extinction, with a rapid recovery, while the September 2014 storm shows fast extinction but no recovery for around two weeks. By contrast, the moderate September 2012 storm which generated a three radiation belt morphology shows more gradual loss. We compute the last closed drift shell (LCDS) for each of these four storms and show a very strong correspondence between the LCDS and the loss patterns of trapped electrons in each storm. Most significantly, the location of the LCDS closely mirrors the high time resolution losses observed in GPS flux. The fast losses occur on a timescale shorter than the Van Allen Probes orbital period, are explained by proximity to the LCDS, and progress inward, consistent with outward transport to the LCDS by fast ULF wave radial diffusion. Expressing the location of the LCDS in L*, and not model magnetopause standoff distance in units of RE, clearly reveals magnetopause shadowing as the cause of the fast loss observed by the GPS satellites.

Olifer, L.; Mann, I.; Morley, S.; Ozeke, L.; Choi, D.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025190

inner magnetosphere; magnetopause shadowing; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

A census of plasma waves and structures associated with an injection front in the inner magnetosphere

Now that observations have conclusively established that the inner magnetosphere is abundantly populated with kinetic electric field structures and nonlinear waves, attention has turned to quantifying the ability of these structures and waves to scatter and accelerate inner magnetospheric plasma populations. A necessary step in that quantification is determining the distribution of observed structure and wave properties (e.g. occurrence rates, amplitudes, spatial scales). Kinetic structures and nonlinear waves have broadband signatures in frequency space and consequently, high resolution time domain electric and magnetic field data is required to uniquely identify such structures and waves as well as determine their properties. However, most high resolution fields data is collected with a strong bias toward high amplitude signals in a pre-selected frequency range, strongly biasing observations of structure and wave properties. In this study, a \~45 minute unbroken interval of 16,384 samples/s fields burst data, encompassing an electron injection event, is examined. This data set enables an unbiased census of the kinetic structures and nonlinear waves driven by this electron injection, as well as determination of their \textquotelefttypical\textquoteright properties. It is found that the properties determined using this unbiased burst data are considerably different than those inferred from amplitude-biased burst data, with significant implications for wave-particle interactions due to kinetic structures and nonlinear waves in the inner magnetosphere.

Malaspina, David; Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr; Chu, Xiangning; Wygant, John;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA025005

Electron Injection; inner magnetosphere; Kinetic structures; Plasma Boundaries; plasma waves; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Fast Magnetosonic Waves Observed by Van Allen Probes: Testing Local Wave Excitation Mechanism

Linear Vlasov theory and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for electromagnetic fluctuations in a homogeneous, magnetized, and collisionless plasma are used to investigate a fast magnetosonic wave event observed by the Van Allen Probes. The fluctuating magnetic field observed exhibits a series of spectral peaks at harmonics of the proton cyclotron frequency Ωp and has a dominant compressional component, which can be classified as fast magnetosonic waves. Furthermore, the simultaneously observed proton phase space density exhibits positive slopes in the perpendicular velocity space, ∂fp/∂v⊥>0, which can be a source for these waves. Linear theory analyses and PIC simulations use plasma and field parameters measured in situ except that the modeled proton distribution is modified to have larger ∂fp/∂v⊥ under the assumption that the observed distribution corresponds to a marginally stable state when the distribution has already been scattered by the excited waves. The results show that the positive slope is the source of the proton cyclotron harmonic waves at propagation quasi-perpendicular to the background magnetic field, and as a result of interactions with the excited waves the evolving proton distribution progresses approximately toward the observed distribution.

Min, Kyungguk; Liu, Kaijun; Wang, Xueyi; Chen, Lunjin; Denton, Richard;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024867

Fast Magnetosonic Waves; inner magnetosphere; observation-simulation comparison; Van Allen Probes; wave excitation


Empirical modeling of the plasmasphere dynamics using neural networks

We propose a new empirical model for reconstructing the global dynamics of the cold plasma density distribution based only on solar wind data and geomagnetic indices. Utilizing the density database obtained using the NURD (Neural-network-based Upper hybrid Resonance Determination) algorithm for the period of October 1, 2012 - July 1, 2016, in conjunction with solar wind data and geomagnetic indices, we develop a neural network model that is capable of globally reconstructing the dynamics of the cold plasma density distribution for 2<=L<=6 and all local times. We validate and test the model by measuring its performance on independent datasets withheld from the training set and by comparing the model predicted global evolution with global images of He+ distribution in the Earth\textquoterights plasmasphere from the IMAGE Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) instrument. We identify the parameters that best quantify the plasmasphere dynamics by training and comparing multiple neural networks with different combinations of input parameters (geomagnetic indices, solar wind data, and different durations of their time history). The optimal model is based on the 96-hour time history of Kp, AE, SYM-H, and F10.7 indices. The model successfully reproduces erosion of the plasmasphere on the night side and plume formation and evolution. We demonstrate results of both local and global plasma density reconstruction. This study illustrates how global dynamics can be reconstructed from local in-situ observations by using machine learning techniques.

Zhelavskaya, Irina; Shprits, Yuri; c, Maria;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024406

inner magnetosphere; Machine learning; Models; neural networks; plasmasphere; Van Allen Probes

Examining coherency scales, substructure, and propagation of whistler-mode chorus elements with Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS)

Whistler-mode chorus waves are a naturally occurring electromagnetic emission observed in Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere. Here, for the first time, data from NASA\textquoterights Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission were used to analyze chorus waves in detail, including the calculation of chorus wave normal vectors, k. A case study was examined from a period of substorm activity around the time of a conjunction between the MMS constellation and NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes mission on 07 April 2016. Chorus wave activity was simultaneously observed by all six spacecraft over a broad range of L-shells (5.5 < L < 8.5), magnetic local time (06:00 < MLT < 09:00), and magnetic latitude (-32\textdegree < MLat < -15\textdegree), implying a large chorus active region. Eight chorus elements and their substructure were analyzed in detail with MMS. These chorus elements were all lower band and rising tone emissions, right-handed and nearly circularly polarized, and propagating away from the magnetic equator when they were observed at MMS (MLat ~ -31\textdegree). Most of the elements had \textquotedbllefthook\textquotedblright like signatures on their wave power spectra, characterized by enhanced wave power at flat or falling frequency following the peak, and all the elements exhibited complex and well organized substructure observed consistently at all four MMS spacecraft at separations up to 70 km (60 km perpendicular and 38 km parallel to the background magnetic field). The waveforms in field-aligned coordinates also demonstrated that these waves were all phase coherent allowing for the direct calculation of k. Error estimates on calculated k revealed that the plane wave approximation was valid for six of the eight elements and most of the subelements. The wave normal vectors were within 20-30\textdegree from the direction anti-parallel to the background field for all elements and changed from subelement to subelement through at least two of the eight elements. The azimuthal angle of k in the perpendicular plane was oriented earthward and was oblique to that of the Poynting vector, which has implications for the validity of cold plasma theory.

Turner, D.; Lee, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Jaynes, A.; Leonard, T.; Wilder, F.; Ergun, R.; Baker, D.; Cohen, I.; Mauk, B.; Strangeway, R.; Hartley, D.; Kletzing, C.; Breuillard, H.; Le Contel, O.; Khotyaintsev, Yu; Torbert, R.; Allen, R.; Burch, J.; Santolik, O.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024474

chorus waves; inner magnetosphere; Magnetospheric multiscale; MMS; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Multipoint observations of energetic particle injections and substorm activity during a conjunction between Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Van Allen Probes

This study examines multipoint observations during a conjunction between MMS and Van Allen Probes on 07 April 2016 in which a series of energetic particle injections occurred. With complementary data from THEMIS, Geotail, and LANL-GEO (16 spacecraft in total), we develop new insights on the nature of energetic particle injections associated with substorm activity. Despite this case involving only weak substorm activity (max. AE < 300 nT) during quiet geomagnetic conditions in steady, below-average solar wind, a complex series of at least six different electron injections was observed throughout the system. Intriguingly, only one corresponding ion injection was clearly observed. All ion and electron injections were observed at < 600 keV only. MMS reveals detailed substructure within the largest electron injection. A relationship between injected electrons with energy < 60 keV and enhanced whistler-mode chorus wave activity is also established from Van Allen Probes and MMS. Drift mapping using a simplified magnetic field model provides estimates of the dispersionless injection boundary locations as a function of universal time, magnetic local time, and L-shell. The analysis reveals that at least five electron injections, which were localized in magnetic local time, preceded a larger injection of both electrons and ions across nearly the entire nightside of the magnetosphere near geosynchronous orbit. The larger, ion and electron injection did not penetrate to L < 6.6, but several of the smaller, electron injections penetrated to L < 6.6. Due to the discrepancy between the number, penetration depth, and complexity of electron vs. ion injections, this event presents challenges to the current conceptual models of energetic particle injections.

Turner, D.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Clemmons, J.; Jaynes, A.; Leonard, T.; Baker, D.; Cohen, I.; Gkioulidou, M.; Ukhorskiy, A; Mauk, B.; Gabrielse, C.; Angelopoulos, V.; Strangeway, R.; Kletzing, C.; Le Contel, O.; Spence, H.; Torbert, R.; Burch, J.; Reeves, G.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 09/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024554

energetic particles; injections; inner magnetosphere; plasma sheet; substorms; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions

The Warm Plasma Composition in the Inner Magnetosphere during 2012-2015

Ionospheric heavy ions play an important role in the dynamics of Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere. The greater mass and gyro radius of ionospheric oxygen differentiates its behavior from protons at the same energies. Oxygen may have an impact on tail reconnection processes, and it can at least temporarily dominate the energy content of the ring current during geomagnetic storms. At sub-keV energies, multi-species ion populations in the inner magnetosphere form the warm plasma cloak, occupying the energy range between the plasmasphere and the ring current. Lastly, cold lighter ions from the mid-latitude ionosphere create the co-rotating plasmasphere whose outer regions can interact with the plasma cloak, plasma sheet, ring current, and outer electron belt. In this paper we present a statistical view of warm, cloak-like ion populations in the inner magnetosphere, contrasting in particular the warm plasma composition during quiet and active times. We study the relative abundances and absolute densities of warm plasma measured by the Van Allen Probes, whose two spacecraft cover the inner magnetosphere from plasmaspheric altitudes close to Earth to just inside geostationary orbit. We observe that warm (>30 eV) oxygen is most abundant closer to the plasmasphere boundary whereas warm hydrogen dominates closer to geostationary orbit. Warm helium is usually a minor constituent, but shows a noticeable enhancement in the near-Earth dusk sector.

Jahn, J.-M.; Goldstein, J.; Reeves, G.; Fernandes, P.; Skoug, R.; Larsen, B.; Spence, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 09/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024183

geomagnetic activity; inner magnetosphere; plasma composition; plasma density; statistics; Van Allen Probes

The plasma environment inside geostationary orbit: A Van Allen Probes HOPE survey

The two full precessions in local time completed by the Van Allen Probes enable global specification of the near-equatorial inner magnetosphere plasma environment. Observations by the Helium-Oxygen-Proton-Electron (HOPE) mass spectrometers provide detailed insight into the global spatial distribution of electrons, H+, He+, and O+. Near-equatorial omnidirectional fluxes and abundance ratios at energies 0.1\textendash30 keV are presented for 2 <= L <= 6 as a function of L shell, magnetic local time (MLT), and geomagnetic activity. We present a new tool built on the UBK modeling technique for classifying plasma sheet particle access to the inner magnetosphere. This new tool generates access maps for particles of constant energy for more direct comparison with in situ measurements, rather than the traditional constant μ presentation typically associated with UBK. We present for the first time inner magnetosphere abundances of O+ flux relative to H+ flux as a function of Kp, L, MLT, and energy. At L = 6, the O+/H+ ratio increases with increasing Kp, consistent with previous results. However, at L < 5 the O+/H+ ratio generally decreases with increasing Kp. We identify a new \textquotedblleftafternoon bulge\textquotedblright plasma population enriched in 10 keV O+ and superenriched in 10 keV He+ that is present during quiet/moderate geomagnetic activity (Kp < 5) at ~1100\textendash2000 MLT and L shell 2\textendash4. Drift path modeling results are consistent with the narrow energy and approximate MLT location of this enhancement, but the underlying physics describing its formation, structure, and depletion during higher geomagnetic activity are currently not understood.

Fernandes, Philip; Larsen, Brian; Thomsen, Michelle; Skoug, Ruth; Reeves, Geoffrey; Denton, Michael; Friedel, Reinhard; Funsten, Herbert; Goldstein, Jerry; Henderson, Michael; Jahn, örg-Micha; MacDonald, Elizabeth; Olson, David;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024160

inner magnetosphere; magnetospheric composition; plasma access; plasma convection; UBK modeling; Van Allen Probes

Statistical Properties of Low Frequency Plasmaspheric Hiss

Plasmaspheric hiss is an important wave mode for the dynamics of inner terrestrial magnetosphere plasma populations. It acts to scatter high energy electrons out of trapped orbits about Earth and into the atmosphere, defining the inner edge of the radiation belts over a range of energies. A low-frequency component of hiss was recently identified and is important for its ability to interact with higher energy electrons compared to typically considered hiss frequencies. This study compares the statistical properties of low and high frequency plasmaspheric hiss in the terrestrial magnetosphere, demonstrating that they are statistically distinct wave populations. Low frequency hiss shows different behavior in frequency space, different spatial localization (in magnetic local time and radial distance), and different amplitude distributions compared to high frequency hiss. The observed statistical properties of low frequency hiss are found to be consistent with recently developed theories for low frequency hiss generation. The results presented here suggest that careful consideration of low frequency hiss properties can be important for accurate inclusion of this wave population in predictive models of inner magnetosphere plasma dynamics.

Malaspina, David; Jaynes, Allison; Hospodarsky, George; Bortnik, Jacob; Ergun, Robert; Wygant, John;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024328

inner magnetosphere; plasma waves; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Van Allen Probes; Wave Statistics

Electron-acoustic solitons and double layers in the inner magnetosphere

The Van Allen Probes observe generally two types of electrostatic solitary waves (ESW) contributing to the broadband electrostatic wave activity in the nightside inner magnetosphere. ESW with symmetric bipolar parallel electric field are electron phase space holes. The nature of ESW with asymmetric bipolar (and almost unipolar) parallel electric field has remained puzzling. To address their nature, we consider a particular event observed by Van Allen Probes to argue that during the broadband wave activity electrons with energy above 200 eV provide the dominant contribution to the total electron density, while the density of cold electrons (below a few eV) is less than a few tenths of the total electron density. We show that velocities of the asymmetric ESW are close to velocity of electron-acoustic waves (existing due to the presence of cold and hot electrons) and follow the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) dispersion relation derived for the observed plasma conditions (electron energy spectrum is a power law between about 100 eV and 10 keV and Maxwellian above 10 keV). The ESW spatial scales are in general agreement with the KdV theory. We interpret the asymmetric ESW in terms of electron-acoustic solitons and double layers (shocks waves).

Vasko, I; Agapitov, O.; Mozer, F.; Bonnell, J.; Artemyev, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Reeves, G.; Hospodarsky, G.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 05/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074026

double layers; electron-acoustic waves; inner magnetosphere; solitons; Van Allen Probes

A multi-spacecraft event study of Pc5 ultra low frequency waves in the magnetosphere and their external drivers

We investigate a quiet-time event of magnetospheric Pc5 ultra low frequency (ULF) waves and their likely external drivers using multiple spacecraft observations. Enhancements of electric and magnetic field perturbations in two narrow frequency bands, 1.5-2 mHz and 3.5-4 mHz, were observed over a large radial distance range from r ~5 to 11 RE. During the first half of this event, perturbations were mainly observed in the transverse components and only in the 3.5-4 mHz band. In comparison, enhancements were stronger during the second half in both transverse and compressional components and in both frequency bands. No indication of field line resonances was found for these magnetic field perturbations. Perturbations in these two bands were also observed in the magnetosheath, but not in the solar wind dynamic pressure perturbations. For the first interval, good correlations between the flow perturbations in the magnetosphere and magnetosheath and an indirect signature for Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) vortices suggest K-H surface waves as the driver. For the second interval, good correlations are found between the magnetosheath dynamic pressure perturbations, magnetopause deformation, and magnetospheric waves, all in good correspondence to IMF discontinuities. The characteristics of these perturbations can be explained by being driven by foreshock perturbations resulting from these IMF discontinuities. This event shows that even during quiet periods, KH-unstable magnetopause and ion foreshock perturbations can combine to create a highly dynamic magnetospheric ULF wave environment.

Wang, Chih-Ping; Thorne, Richard; Liu, Terry; Hartinger, Michael; Nagai, Tsugunobu; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Wygant, John; Breneman, Aaron; Kletzing, Craig; Reeves, Geoffrey; Claudepierre, Seth; Spence, Harlan;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023610

IMF discontinuity; inner magnetosphere; Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices; magnetosheath; Pc5 waves; plasma sheet; Van Allen Probes

On the origin of low-energy electrons in the inner magnetosphere: Fluxes and pitch-angle distributions

Accurate knowledge of the plasma fluxes in the inner magnetosphere is essential for both scientific and programmatic applications. Knowledge of the low-energy electrons (approximately tens to hundreds of eV) in the inner magnetosphere is particularly important since these electrons are acted upon by various physical processes, accelerating the electrons to higher energies, and also causing their loss. However, measurements of low-energy electrons are challenging, and as a result, this population has been somewhat neglected previously. This study concerns observations of low-energy electrons made by the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron instrument on board the Van Allen Probes satellites and also observations from geosynchronous orbit made by the Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer on board Los Alamos National Laboratory satellites. The fluxes of electrons from ~30 eV to 1 keV are quantified as a function of pitch-angle, McIlwain L parameter, and local time for both quiet and active periods. Results indicate two sources for low-energy electrons in this energy range: the low-energy tail of the electron plasma sheet and the high-energy tail of the dayside ionosphere. These populations are identified primarily as a result of their different pitch-angle distributions. Field-aligned outflows from the dayside ionosphere are observed at all L shells during quiet and active periods. Our results also demonstrate that the dayside electron field-aligned fluxes at ~30 eV are particularly strong between L values of 6 and 7, indicating an enhanced source within the polar ionosphere.

Denton, M.; Reeves, G.; Larsen, B.; Friedel, R.; Thomsen, M.; Fernandes, P.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.; Sarno-Smith, L.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023648

inner magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes

EMIC wave scale size in the inner magnetosphere: Observations from the dual Van Allen Probes

Estimating the spatial scales of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is critical for quantifying their overall scattering efficiency and effects on thermal plasma, ring current, and radiation belt particles. Using measurements from the dual Van Allen Probes in 2013\textendash2014, we characterize the spatial and temporal extents of regions of EMIC wave activity and how these depend on local time and radial distance within the inner magnetosphere. Observations are categorized into three types\textemdashwaves observed by only one spacecraft, waves measured by both spacecraft simultaneously, and waves observed by both spacecraft with some time lag. Analysis reveals that dayside (and H+ band) EMIC waves more frequently span larger spatial areas, while nightside (and He+ band) waves are more often localized but can persist many hours. These investigations give insight into the nature of EMIC wave generation and support more accurate quantification of their effects on the ring current and outer radiation belt.

Blum, L.; Bonnell, J.; Agapitov, O.; Paulson, K.; Kletzing, C.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL072316

EMIC waves; inner magnetosphere; multipoint; spatial scales; Van Allen Probes

Investigating the source of near-relativistic and relativistic electrons in Earth\textquoterights inner radiation belt

Using observations from NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes, we study the role of sudden particle enhancements at low L shells (SPELLS) as a source of inner radiation belt electrons. SPELLS events are characterized by electron intensity enhancements of approximately an order of magnitude or more in less than 1 day at L < 3. During quiet and average geomagnetic conditions, the phase space density radial distributions for fixed first and second adiabatic invariants are peaked at 2 < L < 3 for electrons ranging in energy from ~50 keV to ~1 MeV, indicating that slow inward radial diffusion is not the dominant source of inner belt electrons under quiet/average conditions. During SPELLS events, the evolution of electron distributions reveals an enhancement of phase space density that can exceed 3 orders of magnitude in the slot region and continues into the inner radiation belt, which is evidence that these events are an important\textemdashand potentially dominant\textemdashsource of inner belt electrons. Electron fluxes from September 2012 through February 2016 reveal that SPELLS occur frequently (~2.5/month at 200 keV), but the number of observed events decreases exponentially with increasing electron energy for >=100 keV. After SPELLS events, the slot region reforms due to slow energy-dependent decay over several day time scales, consistent with losses due to interactions with plasmaspheric hiss. Combined, these results indicate that the peaked phase space density distributions in the inner electron radiation belt result from an \textquotedbllefton/off,\textquotedblright geomagnetic-activity-dependent source from higher radial distances.

Turner, D.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Blake, J.; Jaynes, A.; Baker, D.; Kaneka, S.; Gkioulidou, M.; Henderson, M.; Reeves, G.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1029/1999JA900445

energetic particle injections; inner magnetosphere; Radiation belts; relativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes

On the origin of low-energy electrons in the inner magnetosphere: Fluxes and pitch-angle distributions

Accurate knowledge of the plasma fluxes in the inner magnetosphere is essential for both scientific and programmatic applications. Knowledge of the low-energy electrons (approximately tens to hundreds of eV) in the inner magnetosphere is particularly important since these electrons are acted upon by various physical processes, accelerating the electrons to higher energies, and also causing their loss. However, measurements of low-energy electrons are challenging, and as a result, this population has been somewhat neglected previously. This study concerns observations of low-energy electrons made by the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron instrument on board the Van Allen Probes satellites and also observations from geosynchronous orbit made by the Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer on board Los Alamos National Laboratory satellites. The fluxes of electrons from ~30 eV to 1 keV are quantified as a function of pitch-angle, McIlwain L parameter, and local time for both quiet and active periods. Results indicate two sources for low-energy electrons in this energy range: the low-energy tail of the electron plasma sheet and the high-energy tail of the dayside ionosphere. These populations are identified primarily as a result of their different pitch-angle distributions. Field-aligned outflows from the dayside ionosphere are observed at all L shells during quiet and active periods. Our results also demonstrate that the dayside electron field-aligned fluxes at ~30 eV are particularly strong between L values of 6 and 7, indicating an enhanced source within the polar ionosphere.

Denton, M.; Reeves, G.; Larsen, B.; Friedel, R.; Thomsen, M.; Fernandes, P.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.; Sarno-Smith, L.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023648

inner magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes

  1      2