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Found 882 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 351 through 400


Electron Distributions in Kinetic Scale Field Line Resonances: A Comparison of Simulations and Observations

Observations in kinetic scale field line resonances, or eigenmodes of the geomagnetic field, reveal highly field-aligned plateaued electron distributions. By combining observations from the Van Allen Probes and Cluster spacecraft with a hybrid kinetic gyrofluid simulation we show how these distributions arise from the nonlocal self-consistent interaction of electrons with the wavefield. This interaction is manifested as electron trapping in the standing wave potential. The process operates along most of the field line and qualitatively accounts for electron observations near the equatorial plane and at higher latitudes. In conjunction with the highly field-aligned plateaus, loss cone features are also evident, which result from the action of the upward-directed wave parallel electric field on the untrapped electron populations.

Damiano, P.A.; Chaston, C.C.; Hull, A.J.; Johnson, J.R.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077748

Alfven waves; field line resonances; kinetic effects; numerical modeling; particle trapping; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Electron flux enhancements at L = 4.2 observed by Global Positioning System satellites: Relationship with solar wind and geomagnetic activity

Determining solar wind and geomagnetic activity parameters most favorable to strong electron flux enhancements is an important step towards forecasting radiation belt dynamics. Using electron flux measurements from Global Positioning System satellites at L = 4.2 in 2009-2016, we seek statistical relationships between flux enhancements at different energies and solar wind dynamic pressure Pdyn, AE, and Kp, from hundreds of events inside and outside the plasmasphere. Most ⩾1 MeV electron flux enhancements occur during non-storm (or weak storm) times. Flux enhancements of 4 MeV electrons outside the plasmasphere occur during periods of low Pdyn and high AE. We perform superposed epoch analyses of GPS electron fluxes, along with solar wind and geomagnetic indices, 40 keV electron flux, ULF wave index from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), and chorus wave intensity from the Van Allen Probes and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) mission. We demonstrate that 4 MeV electron flux enhancements outside the plasmasphere start when the interplanetary magnetic field (Bz) reaches a minimum, and develop during periods of low Pdyn, high AE, low but increasing Dst, moderate ULF wave index, and intense chorus waves. Flux enhancements at 100 keV occur under conditions with higher Pdyn, higher ULF wave index, and elevated 40 keV electron flux at L = 6.6. Moreover, electron flux enhancements take much more time to develop at higher energies. This suggests that 100 keV flux enhancements are dominated by injections, while MeV electron energization is predominantly induced by chorus waves with further amplification by inward transport.

Zhang, X.-J.; Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Thorne, R.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025497

chorus waves; Electron energization; Electron flux enhancements; GPS satellites; Radiation belt; Solar wind and geomagnetic activities; Van Allen Probes

Highly Oblique Lower-Band Chorus Statistics: Dependencies of Wave Power on Refractive Index and Geomagnetic Activity

We use 3 years of Van Allen Probes observations of highly oblique lower-band chorus waves at low latitudes over L = 4\textendash6 to provide a comprehensive statistics of the distribution of their magnetic and electric powers and full energy density as a function of wave refractive index N, L shell, and geomagnetic activity AE. We use the refractive index calculated either in the cold plasma approximation or in the quasi-electrostatic (hot plasma) approximation and either observed wave electric fields or corrected wave electric fields accounting for the formation of a plasma sheath around antenna probes in a low-density plasma. Approximate fits to the maximum refractive index and to the magnetic wave power profile of highly oblique waves are provided as a function of AE and L. Such fits should be useful for simulations of quasi-linear electron diffusion induced by very oblique chorus waves. The magnetic wave power of these oblique waves remains elevated and roughly constant up to higher N values at lower L < 5 and during less disturbed periods AE*<200 nT, likely due to the corresponding lower temperature of hot electrons injected from the plasma sheet, which leads to weaker thermal effects and Landau damping of these very oblique waves. The average energy density of lower-band chorus waves is mainly distributed from N = 30\textendash50 up to N = 150\textendash300, mostly corresponding to highly oblique waves even at low magnetic latitudes.

Shi, R.; Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025337

oblique chorus; refractive index; Van Allen Probes

Ion Injection Triggered EMIC Waves in the Earth\textquoterights Magnetosphere

We present Van Allen Probe observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves triggered solely due to individual substorm-injected ions in the absence of storms or compressions of the magnetosphere during 9 August 2015. The time at which the injected ions are observed directly corresponds to the onset of EMIC waves at the location of Van Allen Probe A (L = 5.5 and 18:06 magnetic local time). The injection was also seen at geosynchronous orbit by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite and Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft, and the westward(eastward) drift of ions(electrons) was monitored by Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft at different local times. The azimuthal location of the injection was determined by tracing the injection signatures backward in time to their origin assuming a dipolar magnetic field of Earth. The center of this injection location was determined to be close to \~20:00 magnetic local time. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite and ground magnetometer responses confirm substorm onset at approximately the same local time. The observed EMIC wave onsets at Van Allen Probe were also associated with a magnetic field decrease. The arrival of anisotropic ions along with the decrease in the magnetic field favors the growth of the EMIC wave instability based on linear theory analysis.

Remya, B.; Sibeck, D.; Halford, A.; Murphy, K.; Reeves, G.; Singer, H.; Wygant, J.; Perez, Farinas; Thaller, S.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025354

EMIC waves; Ion injections; magnetic dip; substorm; Van Allen Probes

Ion Trapping and Acceleration at Dipolarization Fronts: High-Resolution MHD/Test-Particle Simulations

Much of plasma heating and transport from the magnetotail into the inner magnetosphere occurs in the form of mesoscale discrete injections associated with sharp dipolarizations of magnetic field (dipolarization fronts). In this paper we investigate the role of magnetic trapping in acceleration and transport of the plasmasheet ions into the ring current. For this purpose we use high-resolution global MHD and three-dimensional test-particle simulations. It is shown that trapping, produced by sharp magnetic field gradients at the interface between dipolarizations and the ambient plasma, affect plasmasheet protons with energies above approximately 10 keV, enabling their transport across more than 10 Earth radii and acceleration by a factor of 10. Our estimates show that trapping is important to the buildup of the ring current plasma pressure of injected particles; depending on the plasmasheet temperature and energy spectrum, trapped protons can contribute between 20\% to 60\% of the plasma pressure. It is also shown that the acceleration process does not conserve the particle first invariant; on average protons are accelerated to higher energies compared to a purely adiabatic process. We also investigate how trapping and energization varies for deferent ions species and show that, in accordance with recent observations, ion acceleration is proportional to the ion charge and is independent of its mass.

Ukhorskiy, A; Sorathia, K.; Merkin, V.; Sitnov, M.; Mitchell, D.; Gkioulidou, M.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025370

injections; plasma pressure; ring current; trapping; Van Allen Probes

Modeling the Depletion and Recovery of the Outer Radiation Belt During a Geomagnetic Storm: Combined MHD and Test Particle Simulations

During geomagnetic storms the intensities of the outer radiation belt electron population can exhibit dramatic variability. Deep depletions in intensity during the main phase are followed by increases during the recovery phase, often to levels that significantly exceed their pre-storm values. To study these processes, we simulate the evolution of the outer radiation belt during the 17 March 2013 geomagnetic storm using our newly-developed radiation belt model (CHIMP) based on test particle and coupled 3D ring current and global MHD simulations, and driven solely with solar wind and F10.7 flux data. Our approach differs from previous work in that we use MHD information to identify regions of strong, bursty, and azimuthally localized Earthward convection in the magnetotail where test particles are then seeded. We validate our model using in situ Van Allen Probe electron intensities over a multi-day period and show that our model is able to reproduce meaningful qualitative and quantitative agreement. Analysis of our model enables us to study the processes that govern the transition from the pre- to post-storm outer belt. Our analysis demonstrates that during the early main phase of the storm the pre-existing outer belt is largely wiped out via magnetopause losses and subsequently a new outer belt is created during a handful of discrete, mesoscale injections. Finally, we demonstrate the potential importance of magnetic gradient trapping in the transport and energization of outer belt electrons using a controlled numerical experiment.

Sorathia, K.; Ukhorskiy, A; Merkin, V.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025506

dropout; Geomagnetic storms; magnetopause loss; Radial Transport; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

Observation of Oblique Lower Band Chorus Generated by Nonlinear Three-Wave Interaction

Oblique whistler mode waves have been suggested to play an important role in radiation belt electron dynamics. Recently, Fu et al. [2017] proposed that highly oblique lower band whistler waves could be generated by nonlinear three-wave resonance. Here we present the first observational evidence of such process, using Van Allen Probes data, where an oblique lower band chorus wave is generated by two quasi-parallel waves through nonlinear three-wave interaction. The wave resonance condition is satisfied even in the presence of frequency chirping of one of the pump waves. Different from the simulation results of Fu et al. [2017], simultaneous particle data do not show a plateau in the electron distribution, which could be due to the very weak intensity of the generated waves. These results should help to better understand the generation of oblique waves in the inner magnetosphere and their relative roles in energetic electron dynamics.

Teng, S.; Zhao, J.; Tao, X.; Wang, S.; Reeves, G.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL078765

Oblique lower band chorus; radiation belt physics; Van Allen Probes; wave particle interaction; wave-wave interaction

Observed propagation route of VLF transmitter signals in the magnetosphere

Signals of powerful ground transmitters at various places have been detected by satellites in near-Earth space. The study on propagation mode, ducted or nonducted, has attracted much attentions for several decades. Based on the statistical results from Van Allen Probes (data from Oct. 2012 to Mar. 2017) and DEMETER satellite (from Jan. 2006 to Dec. 2007), we present the ground transmitter signals distributed clearly in ionosphere and magnetosphere. The observed propagation route in the meridian plane in the magnetosphere for each of various transmitters from the combination of DEMETER and Van Allen Probes data in night time is revealed for the first time. We use realistic ray tracing simulation and compare simulation results against Van Allen Probes and DEMETER observation. By comparison we demonstrate that the observed propagation route, with partial deviation from the field lines corresponding to ground stations, provides direct and clear statistical evidence that the nonducted propagation mode plays a main role, although with partial contribution from ducted propagation. The propagation characteristics of VLF transmitter signals in the magnetosphere are critical for quantitatively assessing their contribution to energetic electron loss in radiation belts.

Zhang, Zhenxia; Chen, Lunjin; Li, Xinqiao; Xia, Zhiyang; Heelis, Roderick; Horne, Richard;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025637

ducted propagation; in magnetosphere; nonducted propagation; Van Allen Probes; VLF transmitter

Plasma anisotropies and currents in the near-Earth plasma sheet and inner magnetosphere

The region occupying radial distances of \~3 - 9 Earth radii (RE) in the night side, includes the near-Earth plasma sheet with stretched magnetic field lines and the inner magnetosphere with strong dipolar magnetic field. In this region, the plasma flow energy, which was injected into the inner magnetosphere from the magnetotail, is converted to particle heating and electromagnetic wave generation. These important processes are controlled by plasma anisotropies, which are the focus of this study. Using measurements of THEMIS and Van Allen Probes in this transition region we obtain radial profiles of ion and electron temperatures and anisotropies for various geomagnetic activity levels. Ion and electron anisotropies vary with the geomagnetic activity in opposite directions. Parallel anisotropic ions are observed together with transversely anisotropic electrons, whereas the change of ion anisotropy from parallel to transverse (with increasing Kp) is accompanied by the electron anisotropy changing from transverse to parallel. Based on plasma anisotropy observations, we estimate that the anisotropy-related currents (curvature currents) are about 10 - 20\% of the diamagnetic currents.

Artemyev, A.; Zhang, X.-J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.; Spence, H.; Larsen, B.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025232

injections; inner magnetosphere; plasma currents; plasma sheet; Van Allen Probes

Properties of intense field-aligned lower-band chorus waves: Implications for nonlinear wave-particle interactions

Resonant interactions between electrons and chorus waves are responsible for a wide range of phenomena in near-Earth space (e.g., diffuse aurora, acceleration of MeV electrons, etc.). Although quasi-linear diffusion is believed to be the primary paradigm for describing such interactions, an increasing number of investigations suggest that nonlinear effects are also important in controlling the rapid dynamics of electrons. However, present models of nonlinear wave-particle interactions, which have been successfully used to describe individual short-term events, are not directly applicable for a statistical evaluation of nonlinear effects and the long-term dynamics of the outer radiation belt, because they lack information on the properties of intense (nonlinearly resonating with electrons) chorus waves. In this paper, we use the THEMIS and Van Allen Probes datasets of field-aligned chorus waveforms to study two key characteristics of these waves: effective amplitude w (nonlinear interaction can occur when w > 2) and wave-packet length β (the number of wave periods within it). While as many as 10 - 15\% of chorus wave-packets are sufficiently intense (w > 2 - 3) to interact nonlinearly with relativistic electrons, most of them are short (β < 10) reducing the efficacy of such interactions. Revised models of non-linear interactions are thus needed to account for the long-term effects of these common, intense but short chorus wave packets. We also discuss the dependence of w, β on location (MLT, L-shell) and on the properties of the suprathermal electron population.

Zhang, X.-J.; Thorne, R.; Artemyev, A.; Mourenas, D.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bortnik, J.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025390

chorus waves; Effective amplitude; nonlinear wave-particle interaction; spatial distribution; statistics; Van Allen Probes; Wave-packet length

Rapid Enhancements of the Seed Populations in the Heart of the Earth\textquoterights Outer Radiation Belt: A Multicase Study

To better understand rapid enhancements of the seed populations (hundreds of keV electrons) in the heart of the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt (L* ~ 3.5\textendash5.0) during different geomagnetic activities, we investigate three enhancement events measured by Van Allen Probes in detail. Observations of the fluxes and the pitch angle distributions of energetic electrons are analyzed to determine rapid enhancements of the seed populations. Our study shows that three specified processes associated with substorm electron injections can lead to rapid enhancements of the seed populations, and the electron energy increases up to 342 keV. In the first process, substorm electron injections accompanied by the transient and intense substorm electric fields can directly lead to rapid enhancements of the seed populations in the heart of the outer radiation belt. In the second process, the substorm injected electrons are first trapped in the outer radiation belt and subsequently transported into L* < 4.5 by the convection electric field. In the third process, the lower energy electrons are first injected at L* ~ 5.3 and then undergo drift resonance with ultralow-frequency waves. These accelerated electrons by ultralow-frequency waves are further transported into L* < 4.5 due to the convection electric field. This process is consistent with the radial diffusion. Our results suggest that these specified processes are important for understanding the dynamics of the seed populations in the heart of the outer radiation belt.

Tang, C.; Xie, X.; Ni, B.; Su, Z.; Reeves, G.; Zhang, J.-C.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.; Wygant, J.; Dai, G;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2017JA025142

enhanced convection; Substorm Injections; the outer radiation belt; the seed population; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes

Response of Different Ion Species to Local Magnetic Dipolarization Inside Geosynchronous Orbit

This paper examines how hydrogen, helium and oxygen (H, He and O) ion fluxes at 1\textendash1000 keV typically respond to local magnetic dipolarization inside geosynchronous orbit (GEO). We extracted 144 dipolarizations which occurred at magnetic inclination > 30\textdegree from the 2012\textendash2016 tail seasons\textquoteright observations of the Van Allen Probes spacecraft and then defined typical flux changes of these ion species by performing a superposed epoch analysis. On average, the dipolarization inside GEO is accompanied by a precursory transient decrease in the northward magnetic field component, transient impulsive enhancement in the westward electric field component, and decrease (increase) in the proton density (temperature). The coincident ion species experience an energy-dependent flux change, consisting of enhancement (depression) at energies above (below) ~50 keV. These properties morphologically resemble those around dipolarization fronts (or fast flows) in the near-Earth tail. A distinction among the ion species is the average energy of the flux ratio peak, being at 200\textendash400 keV (100\textendash200 keV) for He (H and O) ions. The flux ratio peaks at different energies likely reflect the different charge states of injected ionospheric- and/or solar wind-origin ion species. The ion spectra become harder for sharp dipolarizations, suggesting the importance of accompanying electric field in transporting and/or energizing the ions efficiently. Interestingly, the average flux ratio peak does not differ significantly among the ion species for ~2 min after onset, which implies that mass-dependent acceleration process is less important in the initial stage of dipolarization.

Motoba, T.; Ohtani, S.; Gkioulidou, M.; Ukhorskiy, A.; Mitchell, D.; Takahashi, K.; Lanzerotti, L.; Kletzing, C.; Spence, H.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025557

deep inside geosynchronous orbit; dipolarizations; Ion injections; ion species; Van Allen Probes

Spatial Development of the Dipolarization Region in the Inner Magnetosphere

The present study examines dipolarization events observed by the Van Allen Probes within 5.8 RE from Earth. It is found that the probability of occurrence is significantly higher in the dusk-to-midnight sector than in the midnight-to-dawn sector, and it deceases sharply earthward. A comparison with observations made at nearby satellites shows that dipolarization signatures are often highly correlated (c.c. > 0.8) within 1 hr in MLT and 1 RE in RXY, and the dipolarization region expands earthward and westward in the dusk-to-midnight sector. The westward expansion velocity is estimated at 0.4 hr (in MLT) per minute, or 60 km/s, which is consistent with the previously reported result for geosynchronous dipolarization. The earthward expansion is apparently less systematic than the westward expansion. Its velocity is estimated at 50 km/s (0.5 RE/min), comparable to the westward expansion velocity, but it is suggested that the earthward expansion slows down as the dipolarization region approaches Earth, and it eventually stops. This idea is consistent with the earthward reduction of the occurrence probability of dipolarization events. Whereas this earthward expansion is difficult to explain with the conventional wedge current system, it may be understood in terms of a current system with two wedges, one with the R1 polarity outside and the other with the R2 polarity closer to Earth. For such a current system the region of dipolarization is confined in radial distance between the two wedge currents, and it is considered to expand earthward as the R2-sense wedge moves earthward along with injected plasma.

Ohtani, S.; Motoba, T.; Gkioulidou, M.; Takahashi, K.; Singer, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025443

Dipolarization; injection; inner magnetosphere; R1 and R2 currents; substorm current wedge; substorms; Van Allen Probes

Statistical investigation of the efficiency of EMIC waves in precipitating relativistic electrons

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been proposed to cause Relativistic Electron Precipitation (REP). In our study, we carry out 4 years of analysis from 2013 to 2016, with relativistic electron precipitation spikes obtained from POES satellites and EMIC waves observation from Van Allen Probes. Among the 473 coincidence events when POES satellites go through the region conjugate to EMIC wave activity, only 127 are associated with REP. Additionally, the coincidence occurrence rate is about 10\% higher than the random coincidence occurrence rate, indicating that EMIC waves and relativistic electrons can be statistically related, but the link is weaker than expected. H+ band EMIC waves have been regarded as less important than He+ band EMIC waves for the precipitation of relativistic electrons. We demonstrate that the proportion of H+ band EMIC wave events that are associated with REP (22\% to 32\%) is slightly higher than for He+ band EMIC wave activity (18\% to 27\%). An even greater proportion (25\% to 40\%) of EMIC waves are accompanied by REP events when H+ band and He+ band EMIC waves occur simultaneously.

Qin, Murong; Hudson, Mary; Millan, Mary; Woodger, Leslie; Shekhar, Sapna;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025419

causally related; coincidence occurrence rate; efficiency; EMIC wave; random coincidence occurrence rate; relativistic electron precipitation; Van Allen Probes

Determining the mode, frequency, and azimuthal wave number of ULF waves during a HSS and moderate geomagnetic storm

Ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves play a fundamental role in the dynamics of the inner-magnetosphere and outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms. Broadband ULF wave power can transport energetic electrons via radial diffusion and discrete ULF wave power can energize electrons through a resonant interaction. Using observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, we characterize the evolution of ULF waves during a high-speed solar wind stream (HSS) and moderate geomagnetic storm while there is an enhancement of the outer radiation belt. The Automated Flare Inference of Oscillations (AFINO) code is used to distinguish discrete ULF wave power from broadband wave power during the HSS. During periods of discrete wave power and utilizing the close separation of the MMS spacecraft, we estimate the toroidal mode ULF azimuthal wave number throughout the geomagnetic storm. We concentrate on the toroidal mode as the HSSs compresses the day side magnetosphere resulting in an asymmetric magnetic field topology where toroidal mode waves can interact with energetic electrons. Analysis of the mode structure and wave numbers demonstrates that the generation of the observed ULF waves is a combination of externally driven waves, via the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and internally driven waves, via unstable ion distributions. Further analysis of the periods and toroidal azimuthal wave numbers suggests that these waves can couple with the core electron radiation belt population via the drift resonance during the storm. The azimuthal wave number and structure of ULF wave power (broadband or discrete) have important implications for the inner-magnetospheric and radiation belt dynamics.

Murphy, Kyle; Inglis, Andrew; Sibeck, David; Rae, Jonathan; Watt, Clare; Silveira, Marcos; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Claudepierre, Seth; Nakamura, Rumi;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2017JA024877

azimuthal wave number; Geomagnetic storms; mode structure; Radiation belts; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes

Electron nonlinear resonant interaction with short and intense parallel chorus wave-packets

One of the major drivers of radiation belt dynamics, electron resonant interaction with whistler-mode chorus waves, is traditionally described using the quasi-linear diffusion approximation. Such a description satisfactorily explains many observed phenomena, but its applicability can be justified only for sufficiently low intensity, long duration waves. Recent spacecraft observations of a large number of very intense lower band chorus waves (with magnetic field amplitudes sometimes reaching \~1\% of the background) therefore challenge this traditional description, and call for an alternative approach when addressing the global, long-term effects of the nonlinear interaction of these waves with radiation belt electrons. In this paper, we first use observations from the Van Allen Probes and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft to show that the majority of intense parallel chorus waves consists of relatively short wave-packets. Then, we construct a kinetic equation describing the nonlinear resonant interaction of radiation belt electrons with such short and intense wave-packets. We demonstrate that this peculiar type of nonlinear interaction produces similar effects as quasi-linear diffusion, i.e., a flattening of the electron velocity distribution function within a certain energy/pitch-angle range. The main difference is the much faster evolution of the electron distribution when nonlinear interaction prevails.

Mourenas, D.; Zhang, X.-J.; Artemyev, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Neishtadt, A.; Vasiliev, A.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025417

chorus waves; ; kinetic equation; nonlinear interaction; Radiation belts; short wave-packets; trapping; Van Allen Probes

Electron Scattering by Plasmaspheric Hiss in a Nightside Plume

Plasmaspheric hiss is known to play an important role in radiation belt electron dynamics in high plasma density regions. We present observations of two crossings of a plasmaspheric plume by the Van Allen Probes on 26 December 2012, which occurred unusually at the post-midnight-to-dawn sector between L ~ 4\textendash6 during a geomagnetically quiet period. This plume exhibited pronounced electron densities higher than those of the average plume level. Moderate hiss emissions accompanied the two plume crossings with the peak power at about 100 Hz. Quantification of quasi-linear bounce-averaged electron scattering rates by hiss in the plume demonstrates that the waves are efficient to pitch angle scatter ~10\textendash100 keV electrons at rates up to ~10-4 s-1 near the loss cone but become gradually insignificant to scatter the higher energy electron population. The resultant timescales of electron loss due to hiss in the nightside plume vary largely with electron kinetic energy over 3 orders of magnitude, that is, from several hours for tens of keV electrons to a few days for hundreds of keV electrons to well above 100 days for >1 MeV electrons. Changing slightly with L-shell and the multiquartile profile of hiss spectral intensity, these electron loss timescales suggest that hiss emissions in the nightside plume act as a viable candidate for the fast loss of the ≲100 keV electrons and the slow decay of higher energy electrons.

Zhang, Wenxun; Fu, Song; Gu, Xudong; Ni, Binbin; Xiang, Zheng; Summers, Danny; Zou, Zhengyang; Cao, Xing; Lou, Yuequn; Hua, Man;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 05/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077212

Electron scattering; nightside plumes; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Van Allen Probes

Equatorial noise with quasiperiodic modulation: Multipoint observations by the Van Allen Probes spacecraft

Electromagnetic wave measurements performed by the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft are used to analyze equatorial noise emissions with a quasiperiodic modulation of the wave intensity. These waves are confined to the vicinity of the geomagnetic equator, and they occur primarily on the dayside. In situ plasma number density measurements are used to evaluate density variations related to the wave occurrence. It is shown that the events are sometimes effectively confined to low density regions, being observed at successive satellite passes over a time duration as long as one hour. The events typically occur outside the plasmasphere, and they are often cease to exist just at the plasmapause. The analysis of the spatial separations of the spacecraft at the times when the events were observed simultaneously by both of them allows us to estimate the event spatial dimensions. It is found that the event spatial extent is typically lower than about 0.25RE in radial distance and within about one hour in magnetic local time. Modulation periods of the events decrease with increasing plasma number density up to about 100cm-3. Principally no dependence is observed at larger densities, possibly indicating a propagation from other locations.

emec, F.; ik, O.; Boardsen, S.; Hospodarsky, G.; Kurth, W.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025482

equatorial noise; quasiperiodic modulation; RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Global model of plasmaspheric hiss from multiple satellite observations

We present a global model of plasmaspheric hiss, using data from eight satellites, extending the coverage and improving the statistics of existing models. We use geomagnetic activity dependent templates to separate plasmaspheric hiss from chorus. In the region 22-14 MLT the boundary between plasmaspheric hiss and chorus moves to lower L* values with increasing geomagnetic activity. The average wave intensity of plasmaspheric hiss is largest on the dayside and increases with increasing geomagnetic activity from midnight through dawn to dusk. Plasmaspheric hiss is most intense and spatially extended in the 200-500 Hz frequency band during active conditions, 400

Meredith, Nigel; Horne, Richard; Kersten, Tobias; Li, Wen; Bortnik, Jacob; Sicard-Piet, elica; Yearby, Keith;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025226

plasmasphere; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Poloidal mode wave-particle interactions inferred from Van Allen Probes and CARISMA ground-based observations

Ultra-low-frequency (ULF) wave and test particle models are used to investigate the pitch angle and energy dependence of ion differential fluxes measured by the Van Allen Probes spacecraft on October 6th, 2012. Analysis of the satellite data reveals modulations in differential flux resulting from drift resonance between H+ ions and fundamental mode poloidal Alfv\ en waves detected near the magnetic equator at L\~5.7. Results obtained from simulations reproduce important features of the observations, including a substantial enhancement of the differential flux between \~20\textdegree - 40\textdegree pitch angle for ion energies between \~90 - 220keV, and an absence of flux modulations at 90\textdegree. The numerical results confirm predictions of drift-bounce resonance theory and show good quantitative agreement with observations of modulations in differential flux produced by ULF waves.

Wang, C.; Rankin, R.; Wang, Y.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.; Takahashi, K.; Marchand, R.; Degeling, A.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2017JA025123

ULF wave; drift-resonant; test particle simulation; Van Allen Probes

Radial Transport of Higher-Energy Oxygen Ions Into the Deep Inner Magnetosphere Observed by Van Allen Probes

The transport mechanism of the ring current ions differs among ion energies. Lower-energy (≲150 keV) ions are well known to be transported convectively. Higher-energy (≳150 keV) protons are reported to be transported diffusively, while there are few reports about transport of higher-energy oxygen ions. We report the radial transport of higher-energy oxygen ions into the deep inner magnetosphere during the late main phase of the magnetic storm on 23\textendash25 April 2013 observed by the Van Allen Probes spacecraft. An enhancement of 1\textendash100 mHz magnetic fluctuations is simultaneously observed. Observations of 3 and 30 mHz geomagnetic pulsations indicate the azimuthal mode number is <=10. The fluctuations can resonate with the drift and bounce motions of the oxygen ions. The results suggest that the combination of the drift and drift-bounce resonances is responsible for the radial transport of higher-energy oxygen ions.

Mitani, K.; Seki, K.; Keika, K.; Gkioulidou, M.; Lanzerotti, L.; Mitchell, D.; Kletzing, C.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 05/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077500

magnetic storm; oxygen ion; ring current; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes Observation of a Fundamental Poloidal Standing Alfv\ en Wave Event Related to Giant Pulsations

The Van Allen Probes-A spacecraft observed an \~9 mHz ultra-low-frequency wave on 6 October 2012, at L\~ 5.7, in the dawn sector, and very near the magnetic equator. The wave had a strong electric field that was initially stronger in the azimuthal component and later in the radial component, exhibited properties of a fundamental standing Alfv\ en wave, and was associated with giant pulsations observed on the ground near the magnetic field footprint of the spacecraft. The wave was accompanied by oscillations of the flux of energetic protons (jH+). The amplitude of urn:x-wiley:jgra:media:jgra54254:jgra54254-math-0001 oscillations was large at equatorial pitch angles away from 90\textdegree, and the energy dependence of the phase and amplitude of the oscillations exhibited features consistent with drift resonance of \~140 keV protons with a westward-propagating wave having an azimuthal wave number of \~-40. The wave was detected when the spacecraft entered a region of an earthward gradient of the proton phase space density, in support of a theoretical prediction that such a gradient can drive fundamental poloidal waves.

Takahashi, Kazue; Claudepierre, S.; Rankin, Robert; Mann, Ian; Smith, C.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2017JA025139

drift resonance; Fundamental standing Alfven wave; Giant pulsation; Proton flux oscillation; Van Allen Probes

What Causes Radiation Belt Enhancements: A Survey of the Van Allen Probes Era

We survey radiation belt enhancement events during the Van Allen Probes era to determine what mechanism is the dominant cause of enhancements and where it is most effective. Two primary mechanisms have been proposed: (1) betatron/Fermi acceleration due to the Earthward radial transport of electrons which produces monotonic gradients in phase space density (PSD) and (2) \textquotedblleftlocal acceleration" due to gyro/Landau resonant interaction with electromagnetic waves which produces radially localized, growing peaks in PSD. To differentiate between these processes, we examine radial profiles of PSD in adiabatic coordinates using data from the Van Allen Probes and THEMIS satellites for 80 outer belt enhancement events from October 2012-April 2017 This study shows that local acceleration is the dominant acceleration mechanism for MeV electrons in the outer belt, with 87\% of the enhancement events exhibiting growing peaks. The strong correlation of the location of these with geomagnetic activity further supports this conclusion.

Boyd, A.J.; Turner, D.L.; Reeves, G.D.; Spence, H.E.; Baker, D.N.; Blake, J.B.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 05/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077699

Local Acceleration; Phase space density; Radiation belt; THEMIS; Van Allen Probes

An empirical model of radiation belt electron pitch angle distributions based on Van Allen Probes measurements

Based on over 4 years of Van Allen Probes measurements, an empirical model of radiation belt electron equatorial pitch angle distribution (PAD) is constructed. The model, developed by fitting electron PADs with Legendre polynomials, provides the statistical PADs as a function of L-shell (L=1 \textendash 6), magnetic local time (MLT), electron energy (~30 keV \textendash 5.2 MeV), and geomagnetic activity (represented by the Dst index), and is also the first empirical PAD model in the inner belt and slot region. For MeV electrons, model results show more significant day-night PAD asymmetry of electrons with higher energies and during disturbed times, which is caused by geomagnetic field configuration and flux radial gradient changes. Steeper PADs with higher fluxes around 90\textdegree pitch angle (PA) and lower fluxes at lower PAs for higher energy electrons and during active times are also present, which could be due to EMIC wave scattering. For 100s of keV electrons, cap PADs are generally present in the slot region during quiet times and their energy-dependent features are consistent with hiss wave scattering, while during active times, cap PADs are less significant especially at outer part of slot region, which could be due to the complex energizing and transport processes. 90\textdegree-minimum PADs are persistently present in the inner belt and appear in the slot region during active times, and minima at 90\textdegree PA are more significant for electrons with higher energies, which could be a critical evidence in identifying the underlying physical processes responsible for the formation of 90\textdegree-minimum PADs.

Zhao, H.; Friedel, R.; Chen, Y.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Li, X.; Jaynes, A.; Kanekal, S.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Spence, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025277

Empirical Model; Geomagnetic storms; inner belt and slot region; Pitch angle distribution; radiation belt electrons; Van Allen Probes

Energetic electron injections deep into the inner magnetosphere: a result of the subauroral polarization stream (SAPS) potential drop

It has been reported that the dynamics of energetic (tens to hundreds of keV) electrons and ions is inconsistent with the theoretical picture in which the large-scale electric field is a superposition of corotation and convection electric fields. Combining one year of measurements by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network, DMSP F-18 and the Van Allen Probes, we show that subauroral polarization streams are observed when energetic electrons have penetrated below L = 4. Outside the plasmasphere in the premidnight region, potential energy is subtracted from the total energy of ions and added to the total energy of electrons during SAPS onset. This potential energy is converted into radial motion as the energetic particles drift around Earth and leave the SAPS azimuthal sector. As a result, energetic electrons are injected deeper than energetic ions when SAPS are included in the large-scale electric field picture, in line with observations.

Lejosne, ène; Kunduri, B.; Mozer, F.; Turner, D.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 04/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077969

adiabatic invariants; drift paths; electric fields; injections; SAPS; Van Allen Probes

Generation process of large-amplitude upper band chorus emissions observed by Van Allen Probes

We analyze large-amplitude upper-band chorus emissions measured near the magnetic equator by the EMFISIS (Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science) instrument package onboard the Van Allen Probes. In setting up the parameters of source electrons exciting the emissions based on theoretical analyses and observational results measured by the HOPE (Helium Oxygen Proton Electron) instrument, we calculate threshold and optimum amplitudes with the nonlinear wave growth theory. We find that the optimum amplitude is larger than the threshold amplitude obtained in the frequency range of the chorus emissions and that the wave amplitudes grow between the threshold and optimum amplitudes. In the frame of the wave growth process, the nonlinear growth rates are much greater than the linear growth rates.

Kubota, Yuko; Omura, Yoshiharu; Kletzing, Craig; Reeves, Geoff;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2017JA024782

Chorus; energetic electrons; nonlinear wave-particle interaction; observation; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

The global statistical response of the outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms

Using the total radiation belt electron content calculated from Van Allen Probe phase space density (PSD), the time-dependent and global response of the outer radiation belt during storms is statistically studied. Using PSD reduces the impacts of adiabatic changes in the main phase, allowing a separation of adiabatic and non-adiabatic effects, and revealing a clear modality and repeatable sequence of events in storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. This sequence exhibits an important first adiabatic invariant (μ) dependent behaviour in the seed (150 MeV/G), relativistic (1000 MeV/G), and ultra-relativistic (4000 MeV/G) populations. The outer radiation belt statistically shows an initial phase dominated by loss followed by a second phase of rapid acceleration, whilst the seed population shows little loss and immediate enhancement. The time sequence of the transition to the acceleration is also strongly μ-dependent and occurs at low μ first, appearing to be repeatable from storm to storm.

Murphy, Kyle; Watt, C.; Mann, Ian; Rae, Jonathan; Sibeck, David; Boyd, A.; Forsyth, C.; Turner, D.; Claudepierre, S.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 04/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL076674

Geomagnetic storms; magnetospheric dynamics; Radiation belts; Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Coupling; statistical analysis; Van Allen Probes

Magnetic activity dependence of the electric drift below L=3

More than two years of magnetic and electric field measurements by the Van Allen Probes are analyzed with the objective of determining the average effects of magnetic activity on the electric drift below L=3. The study finds that an increase in magnetospheric convection leads to a decrease in the magnitude of the azimuthal component of the electric drift, especially in the night-side. The amplitude of the slowdown is a function of L, local time MLT, and Kp, in a pattern consistent with the storm-time dynamics of the ionosphere and thermosphere. To a lesser extent, magnetic activity also alters the average radial component of the electric drift below L=3. A global picture for the average variations of the electric drift with Kp is provided as a function of L and MLT. It is the first time that the signature of the ionospheric disturbance dynamo is observed in near-equatorial electric drift measurements.

Lejosne, ène; Mozer, F.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 04/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077873

electric drift; electric field; Inner radiation belt; ionospheric disturbance dynamo; plasmasphere; subcorotation; Van Allen Probes

Operational Nowcasting of Electron Flux Levels in the Outer Zone of Earth\textquoterights Radiation Belt

We describe a lightweight, accurate nowcasting model for electron flux levels measured by the Van Allen probes. Largely motivated by Rigler et al. [2004], we turn to a time-varying linear filter of previous flux levels and Kp. We train and test this model on data gathered from the 2.10 MeV channel of the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope (REPT) sensor onboard the Van Allen probes. Dynamic linear models are a specific case of state space models, and can be made flexible enough to emulate the nonlinear behavior of particle fluxes within the radiation belts. Real-time estimation of the parameters of the model is done using a Kalman Filter, where the state of the model is exactly the parameters. Nowcast performance is assessed against several baseline interpolation schemes. Our model demonstrates significant improvements in performance over persistence nowcasting. In particular, during times of high geomagnetic activity, our model is able to attain performance substantially better than a persistence model. In addition, residual analysis is conducted in order to assess model fit, and to suggest future improvements to the model.

Coleman, Tim; McCollough, James; Young, Shawn; Rigler, E.;

Published by: Space Weather      Published on: 04/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2017SW001788

forecasting; Kalman Filter; Van Allen Probes

On the role of last closed drift shell dynamics in driving fast losses and Van Allen radiation belt extinction

We present observations of very fast radiation belt loss as resolved using high-time resolution electron flux data from the constellation of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. The timescale of these losses is revealed to be as short as \~0.5 - 2 hours during intense magnetic storms, with some storms demonstrating almost total loss on these timescales and which we characterize as radiation belt extinction. The intense March 2013 and March 2015 storms both show such fast extinction, with a rapid recovery, while the September 2014 storm shows fast extinction but no recovery for around two weeks. By contrast, the moderate September 2012 storm which generated a three radiation belt morphology shows more gradual loss. We compute the last closed drift shell (LCDS) for each of these four storms and show a very strong correspondence between the LCDS and the loss patterns of trapped electrons in each storm. Most significantly, the location of the LCDS closely mirrors the high time resolution losses observed in GPS flux. The fast losses occur on a timescale shorter than the Van Allen Probes orbital period, are explained by proximity to the LCDS, and progress inward, consistent with outward transport to the LCDS by fast ULF wave radial diffusion. Expressing the location of the LCDS in L*, and not model magnetopause standoff distance in units of RE, clearly reveals magnetopause shadowing as the cause of the fast loss observed by the GPS satellites.

Olifer, L.; Mann, I.; Morley, S.; Ozeke, L.; Choi, D.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025190

inner magnetosphere; magnetopause shadowing; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes observations of drift-bounce resonance and energy transfer between energetic ring current protons and poloidal Pc4 wave

A poloidal Pc4 wave and proton flux oscillations are observed in the inner magnetosphere on the dayside near the magnetic equator by the Van Allen Probes spacecraft on 2 March 2014. The flux oscillations are observed in the energy range of 67.0 keV to 268.8 keV with the same frequency of the poloidal Pc4 wave. We find pitch angle and energy dispersion in the phase difference between the poloidal magnetic field and the proton flux oscillations, which are features of drift-bounce resonance. We estimate the resonance energy to be ~120 keV for pitch angle (α) of 30\textdegree or 150\textdegree, and 170\textendash180 keV for α = 50\textdegree or 130\textdegree. To examine the direction of energy flow between protons and the wave, we calculate the sign of the gradient of proton phase space density (df/dW) on both the inbound and outbound legs of the orbit. We find the gradient to be outward on both legs, which means that energy is transferred from the protons to the wave. During the poloidal Pc4 wave event, the Dst* index shows a measurable increase of ~6.7 nT. We estimate the total energy loss of the ring current from the recovery of the Dst* index and from the variation of proton flux by the drift-bounce resonance. We suggest that energy transfer from the ring current protons to the poloidal Pc4 wave via the drift-bounce resonance contributes to up to ~85 \% of the increase of the Dst* index.

Oimatsu, S.; e, M.; Takahashi, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Keika, K.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C.; MacDowall, R.; Mitchell, D.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2017JA025087

Van Allen Probes

Nonlinear Electrostatic Steepening of Whistler Waves: The Guiding Factors and Dynamics in Inhomogeneous Systems

Whistler mode chorus waves are particularly important in outer radiation belt dynamics due to their key role in controlling the acceleration and scattering of electrons over a very wide energy range. The efficiency of wave-particle resonant interactions is defined by whistler wave properties which have been described by the approximation of plane linear waves propagating through the cold plasma of the inner magnetosphere. However, recent observations of extremely high-amplitude whistlers suggest the importance of nonlinear wave-particle interactions for the dynamics of the outer radiation belt. Oblique chorus waves observed in the inner magnetosphere often exhibit drastically nonsinusoidal (with significant power in the higher harmonics) waveforms of the parallel electric field, presumably due to the feedback from hot resonant electrons. We have considered the nature and properties of such nonlinear whistler waves observed by the Van Allen Probes and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions define during Substorms in the inner magnetosphere, and we show that the significant enhancement of the wave electrostatic component can result from whistler wave coupling with the beam-driven electrostatic mode through the resonant interaction with hot electron beams. Being modulated by a whistler wave, the electron beam generates a driven electrostatic mode significantly enhancing the parallel electric field of the initial whistler wave. We confirm this mechanism using a self-consistent particle-in-cell simulation. The nonlinear electrostatic component manifests properties of the beam-driven electron acoustic mode and can be responsible for effective electron acceleration in the inhomogeneous magnetic field.

Agapitov, O.; Drake, J.; Vasko, I.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Wygant, J.; Reeves, G.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 03/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL076957

Electron acceleration; electron acoustic waves; induced scattering; nonlinear wave-particle interactions; Van Allen Probes; wave steepening; Whistler waves

Quantitative Evaluation of Radial Diffusion and Local Acceleration Processes During GEM Challenge Events

We simulate the radiation belt electron flux enhancements during selected Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) challenge events to quantitatively compare the major processes involved in relativistic electron acceleration under different conditions. Van Allen Probes observed significant electron flux enhancement during both the storm time of 17\textendash18 March 2013 and non\textendashstorm time of 19\textendash20 September 2013, but the distributions of plasma waves and energetic electrons for the two events were dramatically different. During 17\textendash18 March 2013, the SYM-H minimum reached -130 nT, intense chorus waves (peak Bw ~140 pT) occurred at 3.5 < L < 5.5, and several hundred keV to several MeV electron fluxes increased by ~2 orders of magnitude mostly at 3.5 < L < 5.5. During 19\textendash20 September 2013, the SYM-H remained higher than -30 nT, modestly intense chorus waves (peak Bw ~80 pT) occurred at L > 5.5, and electron fluxes at energies up to 3 MeV increased by a factor of ~5 at L > 5.5. The two electron flux enhancement events were simulated using the available wave distribution and diffusion coefficients from the GEM focus group Quantitative Assessment of Radiation Belt Modeling. By comparing the individual roles of local electron heating and radial transport, our simulation indicates that resonant interaction with chorus waves is the dominant process that accounts for the electron flux enhancement during the storm time event particularly near the flux peak locations, while radial diffusion by ultralow-frequency waves plays a dominant role in the enhancement during the non\textendashstorm time event. Incorporation of both processes reasonably reproduces the observed location and magnitude of electron flux enhancement.

Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R.; Chu, X.; Ozeke, L.; Reeves, G.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Engebretson, M.; Spence, H.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA025114

electron accelerationl whistler mode waves; radial diffusion; radiation belt simulation; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes observation

Reply to Comment by Nishimura Et Al.

Nishimura et al. (2010,, 2011,, 2013,, and in their comment, hereafter called N18) have suggested that chorus waves interact with equatorial electrons to produce pulsating auroras. We agree that chorus can scatter electrons >10 keV, as do Time Domain Structures (TDSs). Lower-energy electrons occurring in pulsating auroras cannot be produced by chorus, but such electrons are scattered and accelerated by TDS. TDSs often occur with chorus and have power in their spectra at chorus frequencies. Thus, the absence of power at low frequencies is not evidence that TDSs are absent, as an example shows. Through examination of equatorial electric field waveforms and electron pitch angle distributions measured on the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms satellites (in place of examining field and particle spectra, as done by Nishimura et al.), we show that chorus cannot produce the field-aligned electrons associated with pulsating auroras in the Nishimura et al. (2010, events, but TDSs can. Equatorial field-aligned electron distributions associated with pulsating auroras and created by TDS in the absence of chorus or any other wave at the equator are also shown.

Mozer, F.; Hull, A.; Lejosne, S.; Vasko, I;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2018JA025218

chorus cannot precipitate electrons observed in pulsating auroras; time domain structures cause electron precipitation in pulsating auroras; Van Allen Probes

A census of plasma waves and structures associated with an injection front in the inner magnetosphere

Now that observations have conclusively established that the inner magnetosphere is abundantly populated with kinetic electric field structures and nonlinear waves, attention has turned to quantifying the ability of these structures and waves to scatter and accelerate inner magnetospheric plasma populations. A necessary step in that quantification is determining the distribution of observed structure and wave properties (e.g. occurrence rates, amplitudes, spatial scales). Kinetic structures and nonlinear waves have broadband signatures in frequency space and consequently, high resolution time domain electric and magnetic field data is required to uniquely identify such structures and waves as well as determine their properties. However, most high resolution fields data is collected with a strong bias toward high amplitude signals in a pre-selected frequency range, strongly biasing observations of structure and wave properties. In this study, a \~45 minute unbroken interval of 16,384 samples/s fields burst data, encompassing an electron injection event, is examined. This data set enables an unbiased census of the kinetic structures and nonlinear waves driven by this electron injection, as well as determination of their \textquotelefttypical\textquoteright properties. It is found that the properties determined using this unbiased burst data are considerably different than those inferred from amplitude-biased burst data, with significant implications for wave-particle interactions due to kinetic structures and nonlinear waves in the inner magnetosphere.

Malaspina, David; Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr; Chu, Xiangning; Wygant, John;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA025005

Electron Injection; inner magnetosphere; Kinetic structures; Plasma Boundaries; plasma waves; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Characteristics of Sudden Commencements Observed by Van Allen Probes in the Inner Magnetosphere

We have statistically studied sudden commencement (SC) by using the data acquired from Van Allen Probes (VAP) in the inner magnetosphere (L = 3.0\textendash6.5) and GOES spacecraft at geosynchronous orbit (L =\~ 6.7) from October 2012 to September 2017. During the time period, we identified 85 SCs in the inner magnetosphere and 90 SCs at geosynchronous orbit. Statistical results of the SC events reveal the following characteristics. (1) There is strong seasonal dependence of the geosynchronous SC amplitude in the radial BV component at all local times. However, BV shows weak seasonal variation on the dayside in the inner magnetosphere. (2) The local time dependence of the SC amplitude in the compressional BH component at geosynchronous orbit is similar to that in the inner magnetosphere. (3) In a nightside region of L = 5.0\textendash6.5, \~19\% of BH events are negative, while \~58\% of BH events are negative at geosynchronous orbit. (4) The amplitude of the SC-associated Ey perturbations varies systematically with local time with a morning-afternoon asymmetry near noon. These observations can be explained by spatial and/or temporal changes in the magnetopause and cross-tail currents, which are caused by changes in the solar wind dynamic pressure, with respect to spacecraft positions.

Fathy, A.; Kim, K.-H.; Park, J.-S.; Jin, H.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.; Ghamry, E.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024770

Sudden commencement; Van Allen Probes

Cold Ion Heating by Magnetosonic Waves in a Density Cavity of the Plasmasphere

Fast magnetosonic (MS) waves play an important role in the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere. Theoretical prediction and simulation have demonstrated that MS waves can heat cold ions. However, direct observational evidence of cold ion heating by MS waves has so far remained elusive. In this paper, we show a typical event of cold ion heating by magnetosonic waves in a density cavity of the plasmasphere with observations of the Van Allen Probe mission on 22 August 2013. During enhancements of the MS wave intensity in the density cavity, the fluxes of trapped H+ and He+ ions with energies of 10\textendash100 eV were observed to increase, implying that cold plasmaspheric ions were heated through high-order resonances with the MS waves. Based on simultaneous observations of ring current protons, we have calculated local linear growth rates, which demonstrate that magnetosonic waves can be locally generated in the density cavity. Our results provide a direct observational proof of the energy coupling process between the ring current and plasmasphere; that is, through exciting MS waves, the free energy stored in the ring current protons with ring distributions is released. In the density cavity of the plasmasphere, both cold H+ and He+ ions are heated by MS waves. As a result, the energy of the ring current can be transferred into the plasmasphere

Yuan, Zhigang; Yu, Xiongdong; Huang, Shiyong; Qiao, Zheng; Yao, Fei; Funsten, Herbert;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024919

cold ion heating; Density cavities; local linear growth rates; magnetosonic waves; Ring current ions; Van Allen Probes; \textquoteleftring\textquoteright distributions

Comparing simulated and observed EMIC wave amplitudes using in situ Van Allen Probes\textquoteright measurements

We perform a statistical study calculating electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave amplitudes based off in situ plasma measurements taken by the Van Allen Probes\textquoteright (1.1\textendash5.8 Re) Helium, Oxygen, Proton, Electron (HOPE) instrument. Calculated wave amplitudes are compared to EMIC waves observed by the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science on board the Van Allen Probes during the same period. The survey covers a 22-month period (1 November 2012 to 31 August 2014), a full Van Allen Probe magnetic local time (MLT) precession. The linear theory proxy was used to identify EMIC wave events with plasma conditions favorable for EMIC wave excitation. Two hundred and thirty-two EMIC wave events (103 H+-band and 129 He+-band) were selected for this comparison. Nearly all events selected are observed beyond L = 4. Results show that calculated wave amplitudes exclusively using the in situ HOPE measurements produce amplitudes too low compared to the observed EMIC wave amplitudes. Hot proton anisotropy (Ahp) distributions are asymmetric in MLT within the inner (L < 7) magnetosphere with peak (minimum) Ahp, \~0.81 to 1.00 (\~0.62), observed in the dawn (dusk), 0000 < MLT <= 1200 (1200 < MLT <= 2400), sectors. Measurements of Ahp are found to decrease in the presence of EMIC wave activity. Ahp amplification factors are determined and vary with respect to EMIC wave-band and MLT. He+-band events generally require double (quadruple) the measured Ahp for the dawn (dusk) sector to reproduce the observed EMIC wave amplitudes.

Saikin, A.A.; Jordanova, V.K.; Zhang, J.C.; Smith, C.W.; Spence, H.E.; Larsen, B.A.; Reeves, G.D.; Torbert, R.B.; Kletzing, C.A.; Zhelavskaya, I.S.; Shprits, Y.Y.;

Published by: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics      Published on: 02/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2018.01.024

EMIC waves Van Allen Probes Linear theory Wave generation; Van Allen Probes

Coordinates for Representing Radiation Belt Particle Flux

Fifty years have passed since the parameter \textquotedblleftL-star\textquotedblright was introduced in geomagnetically trapped particle dynamics. It is thus timely to review the use of adiabatic theory in present-day studies of the radiation belts, with the intention of helping to prevent common misinterpretations and the frequent confusion between concepts like \textquotedblleftdistance to the equatorial point of a field line,\textquotedblright McIlwain\textquoterights L-value, and the trapped particle\textquoterights adiabatic L* parameter. And too often do we miss in the recent literature a proper discussion of the extent to which some observed time and space signatures of particle flux could simply be due to changes in magnetospheric field, especially insofar as off-equatorial particles are concerned. We present a brief review on the history of radiation belt parameterization, some \textquotedblleftrecipes\textquotedblright on how to compute adiabatic parameters, and we illustrate our points with a real event in which magnetospheric disturbance is shown to adiabatically affect the particle fluxes measured onboard the Van Allen Probes.

Roederer, Juan; Lejosne, ène;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA025053

adiabatic coordinates; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Excitation of O + Band EMIC Waves Through H + Ring Velocity Distributions: Van Allen Probe Observations

A typical case of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) emissions with both He+ band and O+ band waves was observed by Van Allen Probe A on 14 July 2014. These emissions occurred in the morning sector on the equator inside the plasmasphere, in which region O+ band EMIC waves prefer to appear. Through property analysis of these emissions, it is found that the He+ band EMIC waves are linearly polarized and propagating quasi-parallelly along the background magnetic field, while the O+ band ones are of linear and left-hand polarization and propagating obliquely with respect to the background magnetic field. Using the in situ observations of plasma environment and particle data, excitation of these O+ band EMIC waves has been investigated with the linear growth theory. The calculated linear growth rate shows that these O+ band EMIC waves can be locally excited by ring current protons with ring velocity distributions. The comparison of the observed wave spectral intensity and the calculated growth rate suggests that the density of H+ rings providing the free energy for the instability has decreased after the wave grows. Therefore, this paper provides a direct observational evidence to the excitation mechanism of O+ band EMIC waves: ring current protons with ring distributions provide the free energy supporting the instability in the presence of rich O+ in the plasmasphere.

Yu, Xiongdong; Yuan, Zhigang; Huang, Shiyong; Yao, Fei; Wang, Dedong; Funsten, Herbert; Wygant, John;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/grl.v45.310.1002/2018GL077109

linear wave growth; O+ band EMIC waves; ring distributions; Van Allen Probes

Observation and Numerical Simulation of Cavity Mode Oscillations Excited by an Interplanetary Shock

Cavity mode oscillations (CMOs) are basic magnetohydrodynamic eigenmodes in the magnetosphere predicted by theory and are expected to occur following the arrival of an interplanetary shock. However, observational studies of shock-induced CMOs have been sparse. We present a case study of a dayside ultra-low-frequency (ULF) wave event that exhibited CMO properties. The event occurred immediately following the arrival of an interplanetary shock at 0829 UT on 15 August 2015. The shock was observed in the solar wind by the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms-B and -C spacecraft, and magnetospheric ULF waves were observed by multiple spacecraft including the Van Allen Probes-A and -B spacecraft, which were located in the dayside plasmasphere at L\~ 1.4 and L\~ 2.4, respectively. Both Van Allen Probes spacecraft detected compressional poloidal mode oscillations at \~13 mHz (fundamental) and \~26 mHz (second harmonic). At both frequencies, the azimuthal component of the electric field (Eϕ) lagged behind the compressional component of the magnetic field (Bμ) by \~90o. The frequencies and the Eϕ-Bμ relative phase are in good agreement with the CMOs generated in a dipole magnetohydrodynamic simulation that incorporates a realistic plasma mass density distribution and ionospheric boundary condition. The oscillations were also detected on the ground by the European quasi-Meridional Magnetometer Array, which was located near the magnetic field footprints of the Van Allen Probes spacecraft.

Takahashi, Kazue; Lysak, Robert; Vellante, Massimo; Kletzing, Craig; Hartinger, Michael; Smith, Charles;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024639

Cavity mode oscillations; interplanetary shock; Van Allen Probes

Quantifying Extremely Rapid Flux Enhancements of Radiation Belt Relativistic Electrons Associated With Radial Diffusion

Previous studies have revealed a typical picture that seed electrons are transported inward under the drive of radial diffusion and then accelerated via chorus to relativistic energies. Here we show a potentially different process during the 2\textendash3 October 2013 storm when Van Allen Probes observed extremely rapid (by about 50 times in 2 h) flux enhancements of relativistic (1.8\textendash3.4 MeV) electrons but without distinct chorus at lower L-shells. Meanwhile, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms satellites simultaneously measured enhanced chorus and fluxes of energetic (\~100\textendash300 keV) seed electrons at higher L-shells. Numerical calculations show that chorus can efficiently accelerate seed electrons at L \~ 8.3. Then radial diffusion further increased the phase space density of relativistic electrons throughout the outer radiation belts, with a remarkable agreement with the observation in magnitude and timescale. The current results provide a different physical scenario on the interplay between radial diffusion and local acceleration in outer radiation belt.

Liu, Si; Yan, Qi; Yang, Chang; Zhou, Qinghua; He, Zhaoguo; He, Yihua; Gao, Zhonglei; Xiao, Fuliang;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/grl.v45.310.1002/2017GL076513

chorus-driven acceleration; radial diffusion; Radiation belt; THEMIS; Van Allen Probes

The Radial Propagation Characteristics of the Injection Front: A Statistical Study Based on BD-IES and Van Allen Probes Observations

Electron flux measurements outside geosynchronous orbit (GSO) obtained by the BeiDa Imaging Electron Spectrometer instrument onboard a 55 degrees-inclined GSO satellite, and inside GSO obtained by the Van Allen Probes are analyzed to investigate the temporal and spatial evolutions of the substorm injection region. In one year data started from October 2015, 63 injection events are identified. Firstly, our study shows that the injection signatures can be detected in a large radial extent in one single event, for example, from L \~ 4.1 to L \~ 9.3. Secondly, injection onset times are derived from the energy dispersion of particle injection signatures of each satellite. The difference of the onset times among satellites reveals that the injection boundary, termed as \textquotedblleftinjection front\textquotedblright in this paper, can propagate both earthward and tailward with a speed varying from a few km/s to \~100 km/s. Thirdly, evolutions of the upper-cutoff magnetic moments (μuc) of injected electrons are analyzed, upon which the injection events are classified into two categories. In one category, the μuc observed by two radially separated satellites are equal taking into account the error caused by the finite width of energy channels, whereas in the other category, μuc at lower L shells are smaller than that at higher L shells.

Liu, Z; Zong, Q.-G.; Hao, Y.; Liu, Y.; Chen, X.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2018JA025185

earthward propagation; radial propagation speed; substorm injection; tailward propagation; upper-cutoff magnetic moment; Van Allen Probes

Radiation belt \textquotedblleftdropouts\textquotedblright and drift-bounce resonances in broadband electromagnetic waves

Observations during the main phase of geomagnetic storms reveal an anti-correlation between the occurrence of broadband low frequency electromagnetic waves and outer radiation belt electron flux. We show that the drift-bounce motion of electrons in the magnetic field of these waves leads to rapid electron transport. For observed spectral energy densities it is demonstrated that the wave magnetic field can drive radial diffusion via drift-bounce resonance on timescales less than a drift orbit. This process may provide outward transport sufficient to account for electron \textquotedblleftdropouts\textquotedblright during storm main phase and more generally modulate the outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms.

Chaston, C.; Bonnell, J.; Wygant, J.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Melrose, D.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL076362

Alfven waves; Geomagnetic storms; Radial Transport; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Resonant Scattering of Radiation Belt Electrons by Off-Equatorial Magnetosonic Waves

Fast magnetosonic (MS) waves are commonly regarded as electromagnetic waves that are characteristically confined within \textpm3\textdegree of the geomagnetic equator. We report two typical off-equatorial MS events observed by Van Allen Probes, that is, the 8 May 2014 event that occurred at the geomagnetic latitudes of 7.5\textdegree\textendash9.2\textdegree both inside and outside the plasmasphere with the wave amplitude up to 590 pT and the 9 January 2014 event that occurred at the latitudes of\textemdash(15.7\textdegree\textendash17.5\textdegree) outside the plasmasphere with a smaller amplitude about 81 pT. Detailed test particle simulations quantify the electron resonant scattering rates by the off-equatorial MS waves to find that they can cause the pitch angle scattering and momentum diffusion of radiation belt electrons with equatorial pitch angles < ~75\textdegree or < ~58\textdegree (depending on the wave latitudinal coverage) on timescales of a day. Subsequent two-dimensional Fokker-Planck diffusion simulations indicate that the strong off-equatorial MS waves are capable of efficiently transporting high pitch angle electrons to lower pitch angles to facilitate the formation of radiation belt electron butterfly distributions for a broad energy range from ~100 keV to >1 MeV within an hour. Our study clearly demonstrates that the presence of off-equatorial MS waves, in addition to equatorial MS waves, can contribute importantly to the dynamical variations of radiation belt electron fluxes and their pitch angle distribution.

Ni, Binbin; Zou, Zhengyang; Fu, Song; Cao, Xing; Gu, Xudong; Xiang, Zheng;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/grl.v45.310.1002/2017GL075788

butterfly pitch angle distributions; off-equatorial MS waves; radiation belt electrons; Van Allen Probes

Statistical Properties of Plasmaspheric Hiss from Van Allen Probes Observations

Van Allen Probes observations are used to statistically investigate plasmaspheric hiss wave properties. This analysis shows that the wave normal direction of plasmaspheric hiss is predominantly field aligned at larger L shells, with a bimodal distribution, consisting of a near-field aligned and a highly oblique component, becoming apparent at lower L shells. Investigation of this oblique population reveals that it is most prevalent at L < 3, frequencies with f/fce> 0.01 (or f> 700 Hz), low geomagnetic activity levels, and between 1900 and 0900 MLT. This structure is similar to that reported for oblique chorus waves in the equatorial region, perhaps suggesting a causal link between the two wave modes. Ray tracing results from HOTRAY confirm that is feasible for these oblique chorus waves to be a source of the observed oblique plasmaspheric hiss population. The decrease in oblique plasmaspheric hiss occurrence rates during more elevated geomagnetic activity levels may be attributed to the increase in Landau resonant electrons causing oblique chorus waves to be more substantially damped outside of the plasmasphere. In turn, this restricts the amount of wave power that can access the plasmasphere and evolve into oblique plasmaspheric hiss. These results confirm that, despite the difference in location of this bimodal distribution compared to previous studies, a direct link between oblique equatorial chorus outside of the plasmasphere and oblique hiss at low L shells is plausible. As such, these results are in keeping with the existing theory of chorus as the source of plasmaspheric hiss.

Hartley, D.; Kletzing, C.; ik, O.; Chen, L.; Horne, R.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024593

Bimodal; chorus waves; EMFISIS; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Van Allen Probes; wave normal angle

Storm-time evolution of outer radiation belt relativistic electrons by a nearly continuous distribution of chorus

During the 13-14 November 2012 storm, Van Allen Probe A simultaneously observed a 10-h period of enhanced chorus (including quasi-parallel and oblique propagation components) and relativistic electron fluxes over a broad range of L = 3-6 and MLT=2 - 10 within a complete orbit cycle. By adopting a Gaussian fit to the observed wave spectra, we obtain the wave parameters and calculate the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients. We solve the Fokker-Planck diffusion equation to simulate flux evolutions of relativistic (1.8-4.2 MeV) electrons during two intervals when Probe A passed the location L = 4.3 along its orbit. The simulating results show that chorus with combined quasi-parallel and oblique components can produce a more pronounced flux enhancement in the pitch angle range \~45o-80o, consistent well with the observation. The current results provide the first evidence on how relativistic electron fluxes vary under the drive of almost continuously distributed chorus with both quasi-parallel and oblique components within a complete orbit of Van Allen Probe.

Yang, Chang; Xiao, Fuliang; He, Yihua; Liu, Si; Zhou, Qinghua; Guo, Mingyue; Zhao, Wanli;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL075894

energetic electron; Geomagnetic storm; outer radiation belt; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction; whistler-mode chorus wave

The Effect of Hot Protons on Magnetosonic Waves Inside and Outside the Plasmapause: New Observations and Theoretic Results

Based on the wave and proton observations by Van Allen Probes A and B, we examined the effects of hot protons (0.01\textendash50 keV) on fast magnetosonic (MS) waves inside and outside the Earth\textquoterights plasmasphere. In the low-density plasma trough outside the plasmapause, the gyroresonance interactions between hot protons and MS waves not only cause the MS wave growth at some frequencies but also lead to the damping of MS waves at other frequencies, which depends on the proton phase space density gradient and the ambient plasma density. The gyroresonance of the observed hot protons cannot excite MS waves near the lower hybrid resonance frequency and even causes the MS wave damping. Thus, the frequencies of the observed MS waves outside the plasmapause are usually lower than the lower hybrid resonance frequency. In the high-density plasmasphere, the observed hot protons merely lead to the weak gyrodamping of MS waves. The persistent existence of lower band MS waves indicates that the weak gyrodamping effect of hot protons on MS waves is ignorable in the high-density plasmasphere.

Liu, Bin; Li, Liuyuan; Yu, Jiang; Cao, Jinbin;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024676

damping of magnetosonic waves; growth of magnetosonic waves; magnetosonic waves; magnetospheric hot protons; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions

An energetic electron flux dropout due to magnetopause shadowing on 1 June 2013

We examine the mechanisms responsible for the dropout of energetic electron flux during 31 May \textendash 1 June 2013, using Van Allen Probe (RBSP) electron flux data and simulations with the Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model. During storm main phase, L-shells at RBSP locations are greater than ~ 8, which are connected to open drift shells. Consequently, diminished electron fluxes were observed over a wide range of energies. The combination of drift shell splitting, magnetopause shadowing and drift loss all result in butterfly electron pitch-angle distributions (PADs) at the nightside. During storm sudden commencement, RBSP observations display electron butterfly PADs over a wide range of energies. However, it is difficult to determine whether there are butterfly PADs during storm main phase since the maximum observable equatorial pitch-angle from RBSP is not larger than ~ 40\textdegree during this period. To investigate the causes of the dropout, the CIMI model is used as a global 4-D kinetic inner magnetosphere model. The CIMI model reproduces the dropout with very similar timing and flux levels and PADs along the RBSP trajectory for 593 keV. Furthermore, the CIMI simulation shows butterfly PADs for 593 keV during storm main phase. Based on comparison of observations and simulations, we suggest that the dropout during this event mainly results from magnetopause shadowing.

Bin Kang, Suk-; Fok, Mei-Ching; Komar, Colin; Glocer, Alex; Li, Wen; Buzulukova, Natalia;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024879

CIMI model; drift loss; dropout; magnetopause shadowing; pitch-angle distribution (PAD); RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Fast Magnetosonic Waves Observed by Van Allen Probes: Testing Local Wave Excitation Mechanism

Linear Vlasov theory and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for electromagnetic fluctuations in a homogeneous, magnetized, and collisionless plasma are used to investigate a fast magnetosonic wave event observed by the Van Allen Probes. The fluctuating magnetic field observed exhibits a series of spectral peaks at harmonics of the proton cyclotron frequency Ωp and has a dominant compressional component, which can be classified as fast magnetosonic waves. Furthermore, the simultaneously observed proton phase space density exhibits positive slopes in the perpendicular velocity space, ∂fp/∂v⊥>0, which can be a source for these waves. Linear theory analyses and PIC simulations use plasma and field parameters measured in situ except that the modeled proton distribution is modified to have larger ∂fp/∂v⊥ under the assumption that the observed distribution corresponds to a marginally stable state when the distribution has already been scattered by the excited waves. The results show that the positive slope is the source of the proton cyclotron harmonic waves at propagation quasi-perpendicular to the background magnetic field, and as a result of interactions with the excited waves the evolving proton distribution progresses approximately toward the observed distribution.

Min, Kyungguk; Liu, Kaijun; Wang, Xueyi; Chen, Lunjin; Denton, Richard;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024867

Fast Magnetosonic Waves; inner magnetosphere; observation-simulation comparison; Van Allen Probes; wave excitation

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